Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the root and canal morphology of maxillary first and second molars in Southern West Coastal Indian population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods: Cone beam computed tomography images of (n = 143) maxillary first molar and (n = 139) maxillary second molar were obtained from Southern West Coastal Indian population. The number of roots, root canals, and presence of second mesiobuccal (MB2) canal were determined. Results: Two roots were seen only in 1.4% of first molars and 8.6% of second molars. Three- rooted were the most common and seen in 98.6% of first molars and 89.9% of second molars. Single root was seen in 1.4% of second molars. The incidence of MB2 canal in the first molar is 64.1% and in second molar 23%. C-shaped canals were found in 1.4% of the second molars. Conclusion: Southern West Coastal Indian population showed features that were similar to other regions of Indian Population. The CBCT is a wonder tool for the study of root canal morphology and a reliable source of information for retrospective studies.
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