In the current study, a breast tumor xenograft was established in athymic nude mice by subcutaneous injection of the MCF-7 cell line and assessed the tumor progression by photoacoustic spectroscopy combined with machine learning tools. The advancement of breast tumors in nude mice was validated by tumor volume kinetics and histopathology and corresponding image analysis by TissueQuant software compared to controls. The ex vivo tumors in progressive conditions belonging to time points, day 5th, 10th, 15th & 20th, were excited with 281 nm pulsed laser light and recorded the corresponding photoacoustic spectra in time domain. The spectra were then pre-processed, augmented for a 10-fold increase in the data strength, and subjected to wavelet packet transformation for feature extraction and selection using MATLAB software. In the present study, the top 10 features from all the time point groups under study were selected based on their prediction ranking values using the mRMR algorithm. The chosen features of all the time-point groups were then subjected to multi-class Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms for learning and classifying into respective time point groups under study. The analysis demonstrated accuracy values of 95.2%, 99.5%, and 80.3% with SVM- Radial Basis Function (SVM-RBF), SVM-Polynomial & SVM-Linear, respectively. The serum metabolomic levels during tumor progression complemented photoacoustic patterns of tumor progression, depicting breast cancer pathophysiology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)952-965
Number of pages14
JournalLaboratory Investigation
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 07-2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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