Fever, thrombocytopenia, and AKI-A profile of malaria, dengue, and leptospirosis with renal failure in a South Indian tertiary-care hospital

Mayoor V. Prabhu, S. Arun, Venkat Ramesh

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Abstract

Introduction: In the tropics, the triad of fever, thrombocytopenia, and AKI portends a grim prognosis with high mortality and a severe strain on already-stretched resources. Malaria, dengue, and leptospirosis account for most cases. We undertook a review of cases to determine factors accounting for adverse prognosis. Methods: All patients presenting to the emergency room (ER) with a history of fever, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure were included in the study. Patients were followed until discharge or death, and end points looked at were 1-week and 30-day mortality, and renal function upon discharge. Parameters like liver function test (LFT), renal function, and platelet count upon discharge were also documented. Results: A total of 43 patients was included in the study. Mean age was 42.5 years with 86% males. Mean APACHE and SOFA scores on admission were 23.89 and 15.42, respectively. Mean admission platelet counts were 41,000. Mean serum creatinine was 4.1, and bilirubin was 9.94. A platelet count of <34,000, serum creatinine of >4, albumin of >2.3, SOFA score of >20, and APACHE score of >32.2 were significantly predictive of 1 week mortality. Need for mechanical ventilation, oliguria on admission, and need for dialysis all were highly predictive of 30-day mortality. In addition, a serum bicarbonate of <12, INR of >1.5, hemoglobin of <9.5 were highly predictive of higher 30 day mortality. Overall, 1-week mortality was 16.3%, of which 48% was accounted for by patients with leptospirosis. Conclusions: Factors like low platelet count, oliguria, need for dialysis, high APACHE and SOFA scores on admission, need for mechanical ventilation, and low serum albumin portend a grave prognosis. There is need for randomized control trials (RCT) to further determine adverse prognostic factors in this subsect of patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)128-130
Number of pages3
JournalClinical Nephrology
Volume86
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-01-2016

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nephrology

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