Atherosclerosis is the most common cardiovascular disease (CVD) causing increased morbidity. Although atherosclerosis is a general disease involving several factors, it preferentially affects the wall of the vessel bifurcations. The use of advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques has the potential to shed more light in the further understanding of the causes of the disease and perhaps in its early diagnosis. In this work, a three-dimensional (3D) Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) study was carried out for a patient specific carotid artery. By considering physiological conditions, first the normal and then with hypertension disease, haemodynamic parameters were evaluated to better understand the genesis and progression of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery bifurcation. Two-way FSI was performed by applying a fully implicit second-order backward Euler differencing scheme using commercial software ANSYS and ANSYS CFX (version 19.0). Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) formulation was employed to calculate the arterial response by using the temporal blood response. Due to arterial bifurcation, obvious velocity reduction and backflow formation were observed which decreased shear stress and made it oscillatory at the starting point of the internal carotid artery near the carotid sinus, which resulted in low shear stress. Oscillatory Shear Index (OSI) signifies oscillatory behaviour of artery wall shear stress. By using anatomically realistic 3D geometry and representative physiological conditions, the results obtained for shear stress are more acceptable. Comparison of the results of this study with those in the published literature shows that the regions with low wall shear stress and with OSI value greater than 0.3 pose potential risk to the development of plaques. It was observed that haemodynamics of the carotid artery was very much affected by the geometry and flow conditions. Furthermore, regions of relatively low wall shear stress were observed post stenosis, which is a known cause of plaque development and progression.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering