In the present study, matrix type transdermal patches containing glibenclamide were prepared using different ratios of ethyl cellulose (EC)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Eudragit RL-100 (ERL)/Eudragit RS-100 (ERS) by solvent evaporation technique. The possible drug and polymer interaction was studied by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and HPTLC analysis. All the prepared formulations were subjected to physicochemical studies (thickness, weight variation, drug content, moisture content and uptake, and flatness), in vitro release and in vitro permeation studies through mouse skin. The results suggested that there was no interaction between drug and polymers. Variations in drug release/permeation profiles among the formulations studied were observed. The microphotographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy showed the formation of pores on the surface of the patches after in vitro skin permeation studies. Based on physicochemical and in vitro skin permeation studies, the formulations with EC:PVP (3:2) and ERL:ERS (4:1) were selected for in vivo experiments. The hypoglycemic activity of the patches in comparison with oral glibenclamide administration was studied for acute (24 h) and long-term (6 weeks) effect in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Various biochemical parameters (serum levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, total cholesterol, alanine transaminase, aspertate transaminase, urea, and creatinine and liver protein and glycogen content) and histopathological (liver, pancreas and stomach) studies were carried out in diabetic mice after treating for 6 weeks. The patches were subjected to skin irritation test (by both visual observation and histopathological evaluation), oral glucose tolerance test and pharmacokinetic evaluation in mice. The results revealed that the patches successfully prevented the severe hypoglycemia in the initial hours, which is the major side effect associated with oral route. The patches maintained similar effect during long-term treatment also. The transdermal systems produced better improvement with all the tested biochemical parameters compared to oral administration. They produced improved repair of the tissues after diabetes induced tissue injury and exhibited negligible skin irritation. The pharmacokinetic evaluation showed that the patches could maintain almost steady-state concentration of drug within the pharmacologically effective range for prolonged period of time. The better in vivo performance of the transdermal patches of glibenclamide in comparison with oral administration could be due to day-to-day glycemic control on long-term application.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmaceutical Science