The present study focuses on newer biocoagulants, bioformulations, and the understanding of coagulant behavior with biocoagulants in relation to chemical coagulants. Newer biocoagulants, seeds of Azadirachta indica (AI) and pads of Acanthocereus tetragonus, are discussed along with two known biocoagulants, Moringa oleifera and Cicer arietinum seeds. Dye removal studies were carried out using widely reported Congo red dye to facilitate easy comparison with other conventional coagulants and the effect of various parameters such as initial dye concentration, pH, coagulant dose, etc. are discussed in detail. The use of biocoagulant was found to be highly effective, and up to 99% dye removal was achieved for coagulant doses in the range of 300-1500 mg/L. It was also observed that coagulation is pH sensitive, similar to chemical coagulants. Although the biocoagulant dose is relatively higher than the conventional chemical coagulants, a good value for the sludge volume index, ∼50 mL/g for 1 h and 30 min, respectively, was obtained for the two coagulants, Acanthocereus tetragonus and Moringa oleifera. A very high particle count compared to chemical coagulants was observed using a focused beam reflectance measurement. Bioformulation with chemical coagulants such as alum, ferric, and aluminum based coagulants can, not only lower doses of biocoagulants (up to one-third) but can also result in significant improvement in the coagulation performance, up to 50% or more.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Chemistry
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment