Background: Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) is an acute monophasic demyelinating neuropathy characterized by progressive motor weakness of limbs with areflexia.
Aim: To study the clinical pattern and outcome of children with Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted in a pediatric unit of tertiary care hospital over a period of 18 months. We assessed the clinical manifestations, results of electro-diagnostic tests, functional status, treatment instituted and outcome of 20 children diagnosed with GBS.
Results: Of the 20 (male to female ratio = 2.3:1) children studied, all had motor weakness, 5 (25%) had sensory loss, 4 (20%) had cranial nerve palsies and 4 (20%) had autonomic disturbances. Respiratory paralysis was found in 7 (35%) children requiring assisted ventilation. Antecedent illness preceding GBS was recorded in 50% children. The GBS subtype distribution as per electrodiagnostic studies was as follows: acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) in 7 (38.9%), acute motor sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) in 4 (22.2%), acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) in 4 (22.2%) and both axonal and demyelinating neuropathy in 3 (16.7%). Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) constituted the treatment given in majority of the patients. Plasmapharesis was performed in one child in view of poor response to IVIG. Complete recovery was observed in 14 children and the remaining 3 children experienced only incomplete recovery.
Conclusion: Male preponderance and presence of antecedent illness in a majority of subjects was observed in our study. Regardless of the severity of illness at admission and electrophysiological subtypes, a majority achieved full recovery. Intravenous Immunoglobulin and supportive care form the cornerstone of management in childhood GBS.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Biochemistry