Hepatoprotective effects of rubiadin, a major constituent of Rubia cordifolia Linn.

G.M.M. Rao, C.V. Rao, P. Pushpangadan, A. Shirwaikar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

153 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The hepatoprotective effects of rubiadin, a major constituent isolated from Rubia cordifolia Linn., were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Rubiadin at a dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was administered orally once daily for 14 days. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) and γ-glutmyltransferase (γ-GT) due to carbontetrachloride treatment were dose dependently restored towards normalization. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of glutathione S-transferase and glutathione ruductase were also restored towards normalization. In addition, rubiadin also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic melondialdehyde formation and depletion of reduced glutathione content in the liver of CCl4 intoxicated rats in a dose dependent manner. Silymarin used as standard reference also exhibited significant hepatopretective activity on post treatment against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that rubiadin has a potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)484-490
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Ethnopharmacology
Volume103
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Rubia
Carbon Tetrachloride
Liver
Glutathione
Serum
Silymarin
Aspartate Aminotransferases
Transaminases
Glutathione Transferase
Pyruvic Acid
Alkaline Phosphatase
Glutamic Acid
rubiadin

Cite this

Rao, G.M.M. ; Rao, C.V. ; Pushpangadan, P. ; Shirwaikar, A. / Hepatoprotective effects of rubiadin, a major constituent of Rubia cordifolia Linn. In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006 ; Vol. 103, No. 3. pp. 484-490.
@article{9509cc9622da4a1ab605ce94d70d3314,
title = "Hepatoprotective effects of rubiadin, a major constituent of Rubia cordifolia Linn.",
abstract = "The hepatoprotective effects of rubiadin, a major constituent isolated from Rubia cordifolia Linn., were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Rubiadin at a dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was administered orally once daily for 14 days. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) and γ-glutmyltransferase (γ-GT) due to carbontetrachloride treatment were dose dependently restored towards normalization. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of glutathione S-transferase and glutathione ruductase were also restored towards normalization. In addition, rubiadin also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic melondialdehyde formation and depletion of reduced glutathione content in the liver of CCl4 intoxicated rats in a dose dependent manner. Silymarin used as standard reference also exhibited significant hepatopretective activity on post treatment against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that rubiadin has a potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats.",
author = "G.M.M. Rao and C.V. Rao and P. Pushpangadan and A. Shirwaikar",
note = "Cited By :142 Export Date: 10 November 2017 CODEN: JOETD Correspondence Address: Rao, G.M.M.; Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow 226 001, Uttarpradesh, India; email: mmraos@rediffmail.com Chemicals/CAS: alanine aminotransferase, 9000-86-6, 9014-30-6; alkaline phosphatase, 9001-78-9; aspartate aminotransferase, 9000-97-9; carbon tetrachloride, 56-23-5; gamma glutamyltransferase, 85876-02-4; glutathione reductase, 9001-48-3; glutathione transferase, 50812-37-8; malonaldehyde, 542-78-9; rubiadin, 117-02-2; silymarin, 65666-07-1; Alkaline Phosphatase, EC 3.1.3.1; Anthraquinones; Antioxidants; Aspartate Aminotransferases, EC 2.6.1.1; Carbon Tetrachloride, 56-23-5; Glutathione Transferase, EC 2.5.1.18; Glutathione, 70-18-8; Malondialdehyde, 542-78-9; rubiadin, 117-02-2; Silymarin References: Adwankar, M.K., Chitnis, M.P., Khandalekar, D.D., Bhadsavale, C.G., Anti-cancer activity of the extracts of Rubia cordifolia Linn (1980) Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 18, pp. 102-106; Antarkar, D.S., Chinwala, T., Bhatt, N., Anti-inflammatory activity of Rubia cordifolia Linn. in rats (1983) Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 15, pp. 185-188; Azri, S., Mata, H.P., Reid, L.L., Gandlofi, A.J., Brendel, K., Further examination of selective toxicity of CCl4 rat liver slices (1992) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 112, pp. 81-86; Boyer, T.D., Vessey, D.A., Holcomb, C., Saley, N., Studies of the relationship between the catalytic activity and binding of non-substrate ligands by the glutathione S-transferase (1984) Biochemical Journal, 217, pp. 179-185; Clawson, G.A., Mechanism of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity (1989) Pathology and Immunology Research, 8, pp. 104-112; De Groot, H., Noll, T., The crucial role of low steady state oxygen partial pressures in haloalkane free radical mediated lipid peroxidation (1986) Biochemical Pharmacology, 35, pp. 15-19; Dhuley, G.P., Naik, S.R., Protective effect of Rhinax, a herbal formulation against CCl4 induced liver injury and survival in rats (1997) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 56, pp. 159-164; Ellman, G.L., Tissue sulfadryl group (1959) Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 82, pp. 70-77; George, W., (1967) Dictionary of the Economic Product of India, 6. , Cosmo Publication Library Road, Delhi; Gravela, E., Albano, E., Dianzani, M.U., Poli, G., Slater, T.F., Effects of carbon tetrachloride on isolated rat hepatocytes: Inhibition of protein and lipoprotein secreation (1979) Biochemical Journal, 178, pp. 509-512; Habig, W.H., Pabst, M.J., Jakoby, W.B., Glutathone S-transferase: The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation (1974) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 249, pp. 7130-7139; Jain, S.K., (1991) Dictionary of Indian Folk Medicine and Ethnobotany, , Deep Publication New Delhi; Joharapurkar, A.A., Deode, N.M., Zambad, S.P., Umathe, S.N., Immunomodulatory activity of alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia Linn (2003) Indian Drugs, 40, pp. 179-181; Kasture, V.S., Desmukh, V.K., Chopde, C.T., Anticonvulsant and behavioral actions of triterpine isolated from Rubia cordifolia Linn (2000) Indian Journal of Experimetal Biology, 38, pp. 675-680; Latha, U., Rajesh, M.G., Latha, M.S., Hepatoprotective effect of an ayurvedic medicine (1999) Indian Drugs, 36, pp. 470-473; Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L., Randall, R.J., Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent (1951) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 193, pp. 265-275; Malloy, J.R., Jollow Evelyn, K.A., (1937) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 119, pp. 481-490; Manohar, K., Adwankar, M.K., Chitnis, M.P., In vivo anti-cancer activity of RC-80, a plant isolate from Rubia cordifolia Linn. against a spectrum of experimental tumour models (1982) Chemotherapy, 28, pp. 291-293; Masukawa, T., Iwata, H., Possible regulation mechanism of microsomal glutathione S-transferase activity in rat liver (1986) Biochemical Pharmacology, 35, pp. 435-438; Mitra, S.K., Seshadri, S.J., Venkataranganna, M.V., Gopumadhavan, S., Venkatesh Udupa, U., Sarma, D.N.K., Effect of HD-03-a herbal formulation in galactosamine-induced hepatopathy in rats (2000) Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 44, pp. 82-86; Mize, C.E., Langdon, R.G., Hepatic glutathione reductase. I. Purification and general kinetic properties (1962) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 237, pp. 1589-1595; Okhawa, H., Ohishi, N., Yagi, K., Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction (1979) Analytical Biochemistry, 95, pp. 351-358; Pandey, G.S., Chunnekar, K.C., (1967) Bhav Prakash Nighantu, , Chaukhambha Vidya Bhavan Varanasi; Pandey, S., Sharma, M., Chaturvedi, P., Tripathi, Y.B., (1994) Indian Journal of Experimetal Biology, 32, pp. 180-184; Reckengel, R.O., Glende Jr., E.A., Britton, R.S., Free radical damage and lipid peroxidation (1991) Hepatotoxicology, pp. 401-436. , R.G. meeks S.D. Harrison R.J. Bull CRC Press Florida; Reckengel, R.O., Glende, E.A., Dolak, J.A., Waller, R.L., Mechanism of carbon tetrachloride toxicity (1989) Pharmacological Therapy, 43, pp. 139-154; Recknagel, R.O., Glende Jr., E.A., Carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity: An example of lethal cleavage (1973) CRC Critical Review Toxicology, 2, pp. 263-297; Reitman, S., Frankel, S., (1957) American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 28, pp. 53-56; Sertoli, A., Francalanci, S., Giorgini, S., (1994) Contact Dermatitis, 31, pp. 322-323; Singh, P.P., Pande, A.P., Goyal, A., Ghosa, R., Srivastva, A.K., (1983) Indian Drugs, 20, pp. 264-280; Shiang, S.H., Sheau, F.Y., Chaunge, Y.H., (1995) Journal of Natural Products, 58, pp. 1365-1371; Szasz, G., A kinetic photometric method for serum γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (1969) Clinical Chemistry, 15, pp. 124-136; Tripathi, Y.B., Pandey, S., Tripathi, P., Shukla, S.D., (1993) Indian Journal of Experimetal Biology, 31, pp. 533-535; Tripathi, Y.B., Sharma, M., Comparison of the antioxidant action of the alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia with rubiadin (1998) Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 35, pp. 313-316; Tripathi, Y.B., Sharma, M.K., Manickam, M., Rubiadin, a new antioxidant from Rubia cordifolia (1997) Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 34, pp. 302-306; Venkateswaran, S., Pari, L., Viswanathan, P., Menon, V.P., Protective effex, a herbal formulation against erythromycin estolate-induced hepatotoxicity in rats (1997) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 57, pp. 161-167; Wolf, C.R., Harrelson Jr., W.G., Nastainczyk, W.M., Philpot, R.M., Kalyanaraman, B., Mason, R.P., Metabolism of carbon tetrachloride in hepatic microsomes and reconstituted monooxygenase systems and its relationship to lipid peroxidation (1980) Molecular Pharmacology, 18, pp. 553-558; Wolf, P.L., Biochemical diagnosis of liver diseases (1999) Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 14, pp. 59-90; Woolson, R.F., (1987) Statistical Methods for the Analysis of Biomedical Data, , Wiley New York; Zimmerman, M., Ethical guidelines for investigation of experimental pain in conscious animal (1983) Pain, 16, pp. 109-110",
year = "2006",
doi = "10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.073",
language = "English",
volume = "103",
pages = "484--490",
journal = "Journal of Ethnopharmacology",
issn = "0378-8741",
publisher = "Elsevier Ireland Ltd",
number = "3",

}

Hepatoprotective effects of rubiadin, a major constituent of Rubia cordifolia Linn. / Rao, G.M.M.; Rao, C.V.; Pushpangadan, P.; Shirwaikar, A.

In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 103, No. 3, 2006, p. 484-490.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Hepatoprotective effects of rubiadin, a major constituent of Rubia cordifolia Linn.

AU - Rao, G.M.M.

AU - Rao, C.V.

AU - Pushpangadan, P.

AU - Shirwaikar, A.

N1 - Cited By :142 Export Date: 10 November 2017 CODEN: JOETD Correspondence Address: Rao, G.M.M.; Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow 226 001, Uttarpradesh, India; email: mmraos@rediffmail.com Chemicals/CAS: alanine aminotransferase, 9000-86-6, 9014-30-6; alkaline phosphatase, 9001-78-9; aspartate aminotransferase, 9000-97-9; carbon tetrachloride, 56-23-5; gamma glutamyltransferase, 85876-02-4; glutathione reductase, 9001-48-3; glutathione transferase, 50812-37-8; malonaldehyde, 542-78-9; rubiadin, 117-02-2; silymarin, 65666-07-1; Alkaline Phosphatase, EC 3.1.3.1; Anthraquinones; Antioxidants; Aspartate Aminotransferases, EC 2.6.1.1; Carbon Tetrachloride, 56-23-5; Glutathione Transferase, EC 2.5.1.18; Glutathione, 70-18-8; Malondialdehyde, 542-78-9; rubiadin, 117-02-2; Silymarin References: Adwankar, M.K., Chitnis, M.P., Khandalekar, D.D., Bhadsavale, C.G., Anti-cancer activity of the extracts of Rubia cordifolia Linn (1980) Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 18, pp. 102-106; Antarkar, D.S., Chinwala, T., Bhatt, N., Anti-inflammatory activity of Rubia cordifolia Linn. in rats (1983) Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 15, pp. 185-188; Azri, S., Mata, H.P., Reid, L.L., Gandlofi, A.J., Brendel, K., Further examination of selective toxicity of CCl4 rat liver slices (1992) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 112, pp. 81-86; Boyer, T.D., Vessey, D.A., Holcomb, C., Saley, N., Studies of the relationship between the catalytic activity and binding of non-substrate ligands by the glutathione S-transferase (1984) Biochemical Journal, 217, pp. 179-185; Clawson, G.A., Mechanism of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity (1989) Pathology and Immunology Research, 8, pp. 104-112; De Groot, H., Noll, T., The crucial role of low steady state oxygen partial pressures in haloalkane free radical mediated lipid peroxidation (1986) Biochemical Pharmacology, 35, pp. 15-19; Dhuley, G.P., Naik, S.R., Protective effect of Rhinax, a herbal formulation against CCl4 induced liver injury and survival in rats (1997) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 56, pp. 159-164; Ellman, G.L., Tissue sulfadryl group (1959) Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 82, pp. 70-77; George, W., (1967) Dictionary of the Economic Product of India, 6. , Cosmo Publication Library Road, Delhi; Gravela, E., Albano, E., Dianzani, M.U., Poli, G., Slater, T.F., Effects of carbon tetrachloride on isolated rat hepatocytes: Inhibition of protein and lipoprotein secreation (1979) Biochemical Journal, 178, pp. 509-512; Habig, W.H., Pabst, M.J., Jakoby, W.B., Glutathone S-transferase: The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation (1974) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 249, pp. 7130-7139; Jain, S.K., (1991) Dictionary of Indian Folk Medicine and Ethnobotany, , Deep Publication New Delhi; Joharapurkar, A.A., Deode, N.M., Zambad, S.P., Umathe, S.N., Immunomodulatory activity of alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia Linn (2003) Indian Drugs, 40, pp. 179-181; Kasture, V.S., Desmukh, V.K., Chopde, C.T., Anticonvulsant and behavioral actions of triterpine isolated from Rubia cordifolia Linn (2000) Indian Journal of Experimetal Biology, 38, pp. 675-680; Latha, U., Rajesh, M.G., Latha, M.S., Hepatoprotective effect of an ayurvedic medicine (1999) Indian Drugs, 36, pp. 470-473; Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L., Randall, R.J., Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent (1951) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 193, pp. 265-275; Malloy, J.R., Jollow Evelyn, K.A., (1937) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 119, pp. 481-490; Manohar, K., Adwankar, M.K., Chitnis, M.P., In vivo anti-cancer activity of RC-80, a plant isolate from Rubia cordifolia Linn. against a spectrum of experimental tumour models (1982) Chemotherapy, 28, pp. 291-293; Masukawa, T., Iwata, H., Possible regulation mechanism of microsomal glutathione S-transferase activity in rat liver (1986) Biochemical Pharmacology, 35, pp. 435-438; Mitra, S.K., Seshadri, S.J., Venkataranganna, M.V., Gopumadhavan, S., Venkatesh Udupa, U., Sarma, D.N.K., Effect of HD-03-a herbal formulation in galactosamine-induced hepatopathy in rats (2000) Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 44, pp. 82-86; Mize, C.E., Langdon, R.G., Hepatic glutathione reductase. I. Purification and general kinetic properties (1962) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 237, pp. 1589-1595; Okhawa, H., Ohishi, N., Yagi, K., Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction (1979) Analytical Biochemistry, 95, pp. 351-358; Pandey, G.S., Chunnekar, K.C., (1967) Bhav Prakash Nighantu, , Chaukhambha Vidya Bhavan Varanasi; Pandey, S., Sharma, M., Chaturvedi, P., Tripathi, Y.B., (1994) Indian Journal of Experimetal Biology, 32, pp. 180-184; Reckengel, R.O., Glende Jr., E.A., Britton, R.S., Free radical damage and lipid peroxidation (1991) Hepatotoxicology, pp. 401-436. , R.G. meeks S.D. Harrison R.J. Bull CRC Press Florida; Reckengel, R.O., Glende, E.A., Dolak, J.A., Waller, R.L., Mechanism of carbon tetrachloride toxicity (1989) Pharmacological Therapy, 43, pp. 139-154; Recknagel, R.O., Glende Jr., E.A., Carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity: An example of lethal cleavage (1973) CRC Critical Review Toxicology, 2, pp. 263-297; Reitman, S., Frankel, S., (1957) American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 28, pp. 53-56; Sertoli, A., Francalanci, S., Giorgini, S., (1994) Contact Dermatitis, 31, pp. 322-323; Singh, P.P., Pande, A.P., Goyal, A., Ghosa, R., Srivastva, A.K., (1983) Indian Drugs, 20, pp. 264-280; Shiang, S.H., Sheau, F.Y., Chaunge, Y.H., (1995) Journal of Natural Products, 58, pp. 1365-1371; Szasz, G., A kinetic photometric method for serum γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (1969) Clinical Chemistry, 15, pp. 124-136; Tripathi, Y.B., Pandey, S., Tripathi, P., Shukla, S.D., (1993) Indian Journal of Experimetal Biology, 31, pp. 533-535; Tripathi, Y.B., Sharma, M., Comparison of the antioxidant action of the alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia with rubiadin (1998) Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 35, pp. 313-316; Tripathi, Y.B., Sharma, M.K., Manickam, M., Rubiadin, a new antioxidant from Rubia cordifolia (1997) Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 34, pp. 302-306; Venkateswaran, S., Pari, L., Viswanathan, P., Menon, V.P., Protective effex, a herbal formulation against erythromycin estolate-induced hepatotoxicity in rats (1997) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 57, pp. 161-167; Wolf, C.R., Harrelson Jr., W.G., Nastainczyk, W.M., Philpot, R.M., Kalyanaraman, B., Mason, R.P., Metabolism of carbon tetrachloride in hepatic microsomes and reconstituted monooxygenase systems and its relationship to lipid peroxidation (1980) Molecular Pharmacology, 18, pp. 553-558; Wolf, P.L., Biochemical diagnosis of liver diseases (1999) Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 14, pp. 59-90; Woolson, R.F., (1987) Statistical Methods for the Analysis of Biomedical Data, , Wiley New York; Zimmerman, M., Ethical guidelines for investigation of experimental pain in conscious animal (1983) Pain, 16, pp. 109-110

PY - 2006

Y1 - 2006

N2 - The hepatoprotective effects of rubiadin, a major constituent isolated from Rubia cordifolia Linn., were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Rubiadin at a dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was administered orally once daily for 14 days. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) and γ-glutmyltransferase (γ-GT) due to carbontetrachloride treatment were dose dependently restored towards normalization. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of glutathione S-transferase and glutathione ruductase were also restored towards normalization. In addition, rubiadin also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic melondialdehyde formation and depletion of reduced glutathione content in the liver of CCl4 intoxicated rats in a dose dependent manner. Silymarin used as standard reference also exhibited significant hepatopretective activity on post treatment against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that rubiadin has a potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats.

AB - The hepatoprotective effects of rubiadin, a major constituent isolated from Rubia cordifolia Linn., were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Rubiadin at a dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was administered orally once daily for 14 days. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) and γ-glutmyltransferase (γ-GT) due to carbontetrachloride treatment were dose dependently restored towards normalization. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of glutathione S-transferase and glutathione ruductase were also restored towards normalization. In addition, rubiadin also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic melondialdehyde formation and depletion of reduced glutathione content in the liver of CCl4 intoxicated rats in a dose dependent manner. Silymarin used as standard reference also exhibited significant hepatopretective activity on post treatment against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that rubiadin has a potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats.

U2 - 10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.073

DO - 10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.073

M3 - Article

VL - 103

SP - 484

EP - 490

JO - Journal of Ethnopharmacology

JF - Journal of Ethnopharmacology

SN - 0378-8741

IS - 3

ER -