Abstract

Objective: To assess the incidence, severity pattern, causality, predictability and preventability of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and to identify risk factors for adverse drug reactions in highly active antiretroviral therapy. Methods: Enrolled patients were intensively monitored for ADRs to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Predictability was assessed based on history of previous exposure to the drug or literature incidence of ADRs. Preventability was assessed using Schumock and Thornton criteria and severity was assessed using modified Hartwig and Siegel scale. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify the risk factors for ADRs. Results: Monitoring of 130 retropositive patients by active pharmacovigilance identified 74 ADRs from 57 patients. Anemia and hepatotoxicity were the most commonly observed ADRs. The organ system commonly affected by ADR was red blood cell (21.4%).The ADRs were moderate in 77% of cases. Type A reactions (77%) were more common. A total of 10.8% ADRs were definitely preventable. The incidence rate of ADRs (65.9%) was highest with Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine combination. A total of 84% interruptions to highly active antiretroviral therapy were due to toxicity. CD4 less than 200 cells/μl, female gender and tuberculosis were observed as risk factors for ADRs. Conclusion: Incidence of ADRs in intensively monitored patients was found to be 43.8%. Anemia in HIV patients is an influential risk factor for occurrence of ADRs. With the increasing access to antiretroviral in India, clinicians must focus on early detection and prevention of ADRs to highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)48-55
Number of pages8
JournalPharmacy Practice
Volume9
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
Viruses
HIV
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Incidence
Anemia
Pharmacovigilance
Nevirapine
Lamivudine
Zidovudine
Causality
India

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacy
  • Pharmaceutical Science

Cite this

@article{f5712810f2b8459baf87f3837738899e,
title = "Highly active antiretroviral therapy induced adverse drug reactions in Indian human immunodeficiency virus positive patients",
abstract = "Objective: To assess the incidence, severity pattern, causality, predictability and preventability of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and to identify risk factors for adverse drug reactions in highly active antiretroviral therapy. Methods: Enrolled patients were intensively monitored for ADRs to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Predictability was assessed based on history of previous exposure to the drug or literature incidence of ADRs. Preventability was assessed using Schumock and Thornton criteria and severity was assessed using modified Hartwig and Siegel scale. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify the risk factors for ADRs. Results: Monitoring of 130 retropositive patients by active pharmacovigilance identified 74 ADRs from 57 patients. Anemia and hepatotoxicity were the most commonly observed ADRs. The organ system commonly affected by ADR was red blood cell (21.4{\%}).The ADRs were moderate in 77{\%} of cases. Type A reactions (77{\%}) were more common. A total of 10.8{\%} ADRs were definitely preventable. The incidence rate of ADRs (65.9{\%}) was highest with Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine combination. A total of 84{\%} interruptions to highly active antiretroviral therapy were due to toxicity. CD4 less than 200 cells/μl, female gender and tuberculosis were observed as risk factors for ADRs. Conclusion: Incidence of ADRs in intensively monitored patients was found to be 43.8{\%}. Anemia in HIV patients is an influential risk factor for occurrence of ADRs. With the increasing access to antiretroviral in India, clinicians must focus on early detection and prevention of ADRs to highly active antiretroviral therapy.",
author = "Radhakrishnan Rajesh and Sudha Vidyasagar and Krishnadas Nandakumar",
year = "2011",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
pages = "48--55",
journal = "Pharmacy Practice",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Highly active antiretroviral therapy induced adverse drug reactions in Indian human immunodeficiency virus positive patients

AU - Rajesh, Radhakrishnan

AU - Vidyasagar, Sudha

AU - Nandakumar, Krishnadas

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - Objective: To assess the incidence, severity pattern, causality, predictability and preventability of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and to identify risk factors for adverse drug reactions in highly active antiretroviral therapy. Methods: Enrolled patients were intensively monitored for ADRs to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Predictability was assessed based on history of previous exposure to the drug or literature incidence of ADRs. Preventability was assessed using Schumock and Thornton criteria and severity was assessed using modified Hartwig and Siegel scale. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify the risk factors for ADRs. Results: Monitoring of 130 retropositive patients by active pharmacovigilance identified 74 ADRs from 57 patients. Anemia and hepatotoxicity were the most commonly observed ADRs. The organ system commonly affected by ADR was red blood cell (21.4%).The ADRs were moderate in 77% of cases. Type A reactions (77%) were more common. A total of 10.8% ADRs were definitely preventable. The incidence rate of ADRs (65.9%) was highest with Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine combination. A total of 84% interruptions to highly active antiretroviral therapy were due to toxicity. CD4 less than 200 cells/μl, female gender and tuberculosis were observed as risk factors for ADRs. Conclusion: Incidence of ADRs in intensively monitored patients was found to be 43.8%. Anemia in HIV patients is an influential risk factor for occurrence of ADRs. With the increasing access to antiretroviral in India, clinicians must focus on early detection and prevention of ADRs to highly active antiretroviral therapy.

AB - Objective: To assess the incidence, severity pattern, causality, predictability and preventability of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and to identify risk factors for adverse drug reactions in highly active antiretroviral therapy. Methods: Enrolled patients were intensively monitored for ADRs to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Predictability was assessed based on history of previous exposure to the drug or literature incidence of ADRs. Preventability was assessed using Schumock and Thornton criteria and severity was assessed using modified Hartwig and Siegel scale. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify the risk factors for ADRs. Results: Monitoring of 130 retropositive patients by active pharmacovigilance identified 74 ADRs from 57 patients. Anemia and hepatotoxicity were the most commonly observed ADRs. The organ system commonly affected by ADR was red blood cell (21.4%).The ADRs were moderate in 77% of cases. Type A reactions (77%) were more common. A total of 10.8% ADRs were definitely preventable. The incidence rate of ADRs (65.9%) was highest with Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine combination. A total of 84% interruptions to highly active antiretroviral therapy were due to toxicity. CD4 less than 200 cells/μl, female gender and tuberculosis were observed as risk factors for ADRs. Conclusion: Incidence of ADRs in intensively monitored patients was found to be 43.8%. Anemia in HIV patients is an influential risk factor for occurrence of ADRs. With the increasing access to antiretroviral in India, clinicians must focus on early detection and prevention of ADRs to highly active antiretroviral therapy.

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