Hippocampus and its involvement in Alzheimer’s disease: a review

Y. Lakshmisha Rao, B. Ganaraja, B. V. Murlimanju, Teresa Joy, Ashwin Krishnamurthy, Amit Agrawal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Hippocampus is the significant component of the limbic lobe, which is further subdivided into the dentate gyrus and parts of Cornu Ammonis. It is the crucial region for learning and memory; its sub-regions aid in the generation of episodic memory. However, the hippocampus is one of the brain areas affected by Alzheimer’s (AD). In the early stages of AD, the hippocampus shows rapid loss of its tissue, which is associated with the functional disconnection with other parts of the brain. In the progression of AD, atrophy of medial temporal and hippocampal regions are the structural markers in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Lack of sirtuin (SIRT) expression in the hippocampal neurons will impair cognitive function, including recent memory and spatial learning. Proliferation, differentiation, and migrations are the steps involved in adult neurogenesis. The microglia in the hippocampal region are more immunologically active than the other regions of the brain. Intrinsic factors like hormones, glia, and vascular nourishment are instrumental in the neural stem cell (NSC) functions by maintaining the brain’s microenvironment. Along with the intrinsic factors, many extrinsic factors like dietary intake and physical activity may also influence the NSCs. Hence, pro-neurogenic lifestyle could delay neurodegeneration.

Original languageEnglish
Article number55
Pages (from-to)55
Journal3 Biotech
Volume12
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 02-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)

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