Few data are available regarding the influence of body phenotype on systemic hypertension (SH) and whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) attenuates this relation. We tested the hypothesis that obesity phenotypes and CRF would predict incident hypertension, evaluating 3,800 Korean men who participated in 2 health examinations in1998 to 2009. All participants were normotensive at baseline and were divided into 4 groups based on body mass index using the Asia-Pacific descriptors for obesity and metabolic health status and the National Cholesterol Education Program's adult treatment panel III (ATP-III) criteria. A metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype was defined as a body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 with <2 metabolic abnormalities. CRF was directly measured by peak oxygen uptake, and the participants were divided into unfit and fit categories based on age-specific peak oxygen uptake percentiles. Compared with the metabolically healthy nonobese phenotype, MHO and metabolically unhealthy nonobese (MUNO) phenotypes were at increased risk of SH (relative risk [RR] = 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 2.02 and 1.62, 1.21 to 2.16) after adjusting for potential confounders. Joint analysis showed that MHO or MUNO unfit men had 1.91 and 2.27 greater risk of incident SH, respectively. However, MHO fit men had no significant RR of incident SH (RR 1.37; 95% CI, 0.93 to 2.03), whereas MUNO fit men remained at increased risk (RR 1.48; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.11) compared with their metabolically healthy nonobese fit counterparts. In conclusion, MHO and MUNO men were at increased risk of SH, but these risks were attenuated by fitness.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine