In Vitro Sustained Release of Calcium Ions and pH Maintenance from Different Vehicles Containing Calcium Hydroxide

N.V. Ballal, G.V. Shavi, R. Kumar, M. Kundabala, K.S. Bhat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: Calcium hydroxide is widely used as an intracanal medicament in endodontics. Its therapeutic effects depend on the dissociation of calcium hydroxide into calcium and hydroxyl ions, which, in turn, depends on the vehicle used. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the sustained release of calcium ions and the pH change of calcium hydroxide over a period of 30 days when formulated with propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 6000, chitosan, and guar gum. Methods: Various formulations were prepared and placed inside the root canals of human teeth and were suspended in glass vials containing distilled water. At specific time intervals, the calcium ion concentration was analyzed using an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. pH changes of the medium were measured at various time intervals up to 30 days. Results: Results revealed that chitosan formulation showed the maximum sustained release of calcium ions compared with the other three formulations. All the formulations exhibited high alkaline pH upto 30 days. Conclusion: From the results of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that chitosan can be used as a promising vehicle for for the sustained release of calcium ions from the calcium hydroxide in the root canal system. © 2010 American Association of Endodontists.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)862-866
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Endodontics
Volume36
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

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Calcium Hydroxide
Maintenance
Ions
Calcium
guar gum
Dental Pulp Cavity
Chitosan
Propylene Glycol
Endodontics
Therapeutic Uses
Glass
Tooth
In Vitro Techniques
Water

Cite this

@article{791bf55b8ee042d7b768cced20cae9cd,
title = "In Vitro Sustained Release of Calcium Ions and pH Maintenance from Different Vehicles Containing Calcium Hydroxide",
abstract = "Introduction: Calcium hydroxide is widely used as an intracanal medicament in endodontics. Its therapeutic effects depend on the dissociation of calcium hydroxide into calcium and hydroxyl ions, which, in turn, depends on the vehicle used. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the sustained release of calcium ions and the pH change of calcium hydroxide over a period of 30 days when formulated with propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 6000, chitosan, and guar gum. Methods: Various formulations were prepared and placed inside the root canals of human teeth and were suspended in glass vials containing distilled water. At specific time intervals, the calcium ion concentration was analyzed using an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. pH changes of the medium were measured at various time intervals up to 30 days. Results: Results revealed that chitosan formulation showed the maximum sustained release of calcium ions compared with the other three formulations. All the formulations exhibited high alkaline pH upto 30 days. Conclusion: From the results of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that chitosan can be used as a promising vehicle for for the sustained release of calcium ions from the calcium hydroxide in the root canal system. {\circledC} 2010 American Association of Endodontists.",
author = "N.V. Ballal and G.V. Shavi and R. Kumar and M. Kundabala and K.S. Bhat",
note = "Cited By :24 Export Date: 10 November 2017 CODEN: JOEND Correspondence Address: Ballal, N.V.; Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka, India; email: drballal@yahoo.com Chemicals/CAS: calcium, 14092-94-5, 7440-70-2; calcium hydroxide, 1305-62-0; chitosan, 9012-76-4; propylene glycol, 57-55-6; Calcium, 7440-70-2; Calcium Hydroxide, 1305-62-0; Chitosan, 9012-76-4; Delayed-Action Preparations; Polyethylene Glycols; Propylene Glycol, 57-55-6; Root Canal Irrigants; Vehicles References: Friedman, S., Shani, J., Stabholz, A., Comparative sealing ability of temporary filling materials evaluated by leakage of radiosodium (1986) Int Endod J, 19, pp. 187-193; Hermann, B.W., (1920) Calcium hydroxide left as a mean for treatment and filling of the root canals, , Med Diss V, Wurzburg University; Forsten, L., Soderling, E., The alkaline and antibacterial effect of seven Ca(OH)2 liners in vitro (1984) Acta Odontol Scand, 42, pp. 93-98; Tronstad, L., Root resorption- etiology, terminology and clinical manifestations (1988) Endod Dent Traumatol, 4, pp. 241-252; Leonardo, M.R., Bezerra da Silva, L.A., Utrilla, L.S., Effect of intracanal dressings on repair and apical bridging of teeth with incomplete root formation (1993) Endod Dent Traumatol, 9, pp. 25-30; Staehle, H.J., Spiees, V., Heinecke, A., Effect of root canal filling materials containing calcium hydroxide on the alkalinity of root dentin (1995) Endod Dent Traumatol, 11, pp. 163-168; Tronstad, L., Andreasen, J.O., Hasselgren, G., pH changes in dental tissues after root canal filling with calcium hydroxide (1981) J Endod, 7, pp. 17-22; Safavi, K.E., Nichols, F.C., Effect of calcium hydroxide on bacterial lipopolysaccharide (1993) J Endod, 19, pp. 76-78; Tanomaru, J.M.G., Leonardo, M.R., Tanomaru Filho, M., Effect of different irrigation solutions and calcium hydroxide on bacterial LPS (2003) Int Endod J, 36, pp. 733-739; Robert, G.H., Liewehr, F.R., Buxton, T.B., Apical diffusion of calcium hydroxide in an in vitro model (2005) J Endod, 31, pp. 57-60; Fava, L.R.G., Saunders, W.P., Calcium hydroxide pastes: classification and clinical indications (1999) Int Endod J, 32, pp. 257-282; Gomes, B.P.F.A., Ferraz, C.C.R., Vianna, M.E., In vitro antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide pastes and their vehicles against selected micro-organisms (2002) Braz Dent J, 13, pp. 155-161; Duarte, M.A.H., Midena, R.Z., Zeferino, M.A., Evaluation of pH and calcium ion release of calcium hydroxide pastes containing different substances (2009) J Endod, 35, pp. 1274-1277; Anthony, D.R., Gordon, T.M., del Rio, C.E., Effects of three vehicles on the pH of calcium hydroxide (1982) Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 54, pp. 560-565; Paul, W., Sharma, C.P., Chitosan, a drug carrier for the 21st century: a review S.T.P (2000) J Pharma Sci, 10, pp. 5-22; Singla, A.K., Chawla, M., Chitosan: some pharmaceutical and biological aspects-an update (2001) J Pharm Pharmacol, 53, pp. 1047-1067; Tsai, G.J., Su, W.H., Antibacterial activity of shrimp chitosan against Escherichia coli (1999) J Food Prot, 62, pp. 239-243; Kenawy, E.R., Worley, S.D., Broughton, R., The chemistry and applications of antimicrobial polymers: a state of the art review (2007) Biomacromolecules, 8, pp. 1359-1384; Park, J.S., Choi, S.H., Moon, I.S., Eight week histological analysis on the effect of chitosan on surgically created one-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs (2003) J Clin Periodontol, 30, pp. 443-453; Senel, S., Ikinci, G., Kas, S., Chitosan films and hydrogels of chlorhexidine gluconate for oral mucosal delivery (2000) Int J Pharm, 193, pp. 197-203; Ballal, N.V., Kundabala, M., Bhat, K.S., Susceptibility of Candia albicans and Enterococcus faecalis to chitosan, chlorhexidine gluconate and their combination in vitro (2009) Aust Endod J, 35, pp. 29-33; Sandolo, C., Coviello, T., Matricardi, P., Characterization of polysaccharide hydrogels for modified drug delivery (2007) Eur Biophys J, 36, pp. 693-700; George, M., Abraham, T.E., pH sensitive alginate-guar gum hydrogel for the controlled delivery of protein drugs (2007) Int J Pharm, 335, pp. 123-129; Simon, S.T., Bhat, K.S., Francis, R., Effect of four vehicles on the pH of calcium hydroxide and the release of calcium ion (1995) Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 80, pp. 459-464; Camoes, I.C.G., Salles, M.R., Chevitarese, O., Influence on pH of vehicle containing glycerin used with calcium hydroxide (2003) Dent Traumatol, 19, pp. 132-138; Hosoya, N., Takahashi, G., Arai, T., Calcium concentration and pH of the periapical environment after applying calcium hydroxide into root canals in vitro (2001) J Endod, 27, pp. 343-346; Nerwich, A., Figdor, D., Messer, H.H., pH changes in root dentin over a 4-week period following root canal dressing with calcium hydroxide (1993) J Endod, 19, pp. 302-306; McCormick, J.E., Weine, F.S., Maggio, J.D., Tissue pH of developing periapical lesions in dogs (1983) J Endod, 9, pp. 47-51; Economides, N., Koulaouzidou, E.A., Beltes, P., In vitro release of hydroxyl ions from calcium hydroxide gutta-percha points (1999) J Endod, 25, pp. 481-482; Zmener, O., Pameijer, C.H., Banegas, G., An in vitro study of the pH of three calcium hydroxide dressing materials (2007) Dent Traumatol, 23, pp. 21-25; Roberston, W.G., Marshall, R.W., Calcium measurements in serum and plasma total and ionized (1979) Cri Rev Clin Lab Sci, 11, pp. 271-304; Sultana, N., Arayne, M.S., Hussain, F., In vitro monitoring of Ciprofloxacin antacids interactions by UV and HPLC (2005) Pak J Pharm Sci, 18, pp. 23-31; C{\'a}rdenas, G., Anaya, P., von Plessing, C., Chitosan composite films. Biomedical applications (2008) J Mater Sci Mater Med, 19, pp. 2397-2405; Nayak, U.Y., Gopal, S., Mutalik, S., Glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan microspheres for controlled delivery of Zidovudine (2008) J Microencapsul, 24, pp. 1-9; Berger, J., Reist, M., Mayer, J.M., Structure and interactions in chitosan hydrogels formed by complexation or aggregation for biomedical applications (2004) Eur J Pharma Biopharm, 57, pp. 35-52",
year = "2010",
doi = "10.1016/j.joen.2009.12.021",
language = "English",
volume = "36",
pages = "862--866",
journal = "Journal of Endodontics",
issn = "0099-2399",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",
number = "5",

}

In Vitro Sustained Release of Calcium Ions and pH Maintenance from Different Vehicles Containing Calcium Hydroxide. / Ballal, N.V.; Shavi, G.V.; Kumar, R.; Kundabala, M.; Bhat, K.S.

In: Journal of Endodontics, Vol. 36, No. 5, 2010, p. 862-866.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - In Vitro Sustained Release of Calcium Ions and pH Maintenance from Different Vehicles Containing Calcium Hydroxide

AU - Ballal, N.V.

AU - Shavi, G.V.

AU - Kumar, R.

AU - Kundabala, M.

AU - Bhat, K.S.

N1 - Cited By :24 Export Date: 10 November 2017 CODEN: JOEND Correspondence Address: Ballal, N.V.; Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka, India; email: drballal@yahoo.com Chemicals/CAS: calcium, 14092-94-5, 7440-70-2; calcium hydroxide, 1305-62-0; chitosan, 9012-76-4; propylene glycol, 57-55-6; Calcium, 7440-70-2; Calcium Hydroxide, 1305-62-0; Chitosan, 9012-76-4; Delayed-Action Preparations; Polyethylene Glycols; Propylene Glycol, 57-55-6; Root Canal Irrigants; Vehicles References: Friedman, S., Shani, J., Stabholz, A., Comparative sealing ability of temporary filling materials evaluated by leakage of radiosodium (1986) Int Endod J, 19, pp. 187-193; Hermann, B.W., (1920) Calcium hydroxide left as a mean for treatment and filling of the root canals, , Med Diss V, Wurzburg University; Forsten, L., Soderling, E., The alkaline and antibacterial effect of seven Ca(OH)2 liners in vitro (1984) Acta Odontol Scand, 42, pp. 93-98; Tronstad, L., Root resorption- etiology, terminology and clinical manifestations (1988) Endod Dent Traumatol, 4, pp. 241-252; Leonardo, M.R., Bezerra da Silva, L.A., Utrilla, L.S., Effect of intracanal dressings on repair and apical bridging of teeth with incomplete root formation (1993) Endod Dent Traumatol, 9, pp. 25-30; Staehle, H.J., Spiees, V., Heinecke, A., Effect of root canal filling materials containing calcium hydroxide on the alkalinity of root dentin (1995) Endod Dent Traumatol, 11, pp. 163-168; Tronstad, L., Andreasen, J.O., Hasselgren, G., pH changes in dental tissues after root canal filling with calcium hydroxide (1981) J Endod, 7, pp. 17-22; Safavi, K.E., Nichols, F.C., Effect of calcium hydroxide on bacterial lipopolysaccharide (1993) J Endod, 19, pp. 76-78; Tanomaru, J.M.G., Leonardo, M.R., Tanomaru Filho, M., Effect of different irrigation solutions and calcium hydroxide on bacterial LPS (2003) Int Endod J, 36, pp. 733-739; Robert, G.H., Liewehr, F.R., Buxton, T.B., Apical diffusion of calcium hydroxide in an in vitro model (2005) J Endod, 31, pp. 57-60; Fava, L.R.G., Saunders, W.P., Calcium hydroxide pastes: classification and clinical indications (1999) Int Endod J, 32, pp. 257-282; Gomes, B.P.F.A., Ferraz, C.C.R., Vianna, M.E., In vitro antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide pastes and their vehicles against selected micro-organisms (2002) Braz Dent J, 13, pp. 155-161; Duarte, M.A.H., Midena, R.Z., Zeferino, M.A., Evaluation of pH and calcium ion release of calcium hydroxide pastes containing different substances (2009) J Endod, 35, pp. 1274-1277; Anthony, D.R., Gordon, T.M., del Rio, C.E., Effects of three vehicles on the pH of calcium hydroxide (1982) Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 54, pp. 560-565; Paul, W., Sharma, C.P., Chitosan, a drug carrier for the 21st century: a review S.T.P (2000) J Pharma Sci, 10, pp. 5-22; Singla, A.K., Chawla, M., Chitosan: some pharmaceutical and biological aspects-an update (2001) J Pharm Pharmacol, 53, pp. 1047-1067; Tsai, G.J., Su, W.H., Antibacterial activity of shrimp chitosan against Escherichia coli (1999) J Food Prot, 62, pp. 239-243; Kenawy, E.R., Worley, S.D., Broughton, R., The chemistry and applications of antimicrobial polymers: a state of the art review (2007) Biomacromolecules, 8, pp. 1359-1384; Park, J.S., Choi, S.H., Moon, I.S., Eight week histological analysis on the effect of chitosan on surgically created one-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs (2003) J Clin Periodontol, 30, pp. 443-453; Senel, S., Ikinci, G., Kas, S., Chitosan films and hydrogels of chlorhexidine gluconate for oral mucosal delivery (2000) Int J Pharm, 193, pp. 197-203; Ballal, N.V., Kundabala, M., Bhat, K.S., Susceptibility of Candia albicans and Enterococcus faecalis to chitosan, chlorhexidine gluconate and their combination in vitro (2009) Aust Endod J, 35, pp. 29-33; Sandolo, C., Coviello, T., Matricardi, P., Characterization of polysaccharide hydrogels for modified drug delivery (2007) Eur Biophys J, 36, pp. 693-700; George, M., Abraham, T.E., pH sensitive alginate-guar gum hydrogel for the controlled delivery of protein drugs (2007) Int J Pharm, 335, pp. 123-129; Simon, S.T., Bhat, K.S., Francis, R., Effect of four vehicles on the pH of calcium hydroxide and the release of calcium ion (1995) Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 80, pp. 459-464; Camoes, I.C.G., Salles, M.R., Chevitarese, O., Influence on pH of vehicle containing glycerin used with calcium hydroxide (2003) Dent Traumatol, 19, pp. 132-138; Hosoya, N., Takahashi, G., Arai, T., Calcium concentration and pH of the periapical environment after applying calcium hydroxide into root canals in vitro (2001) J Endod, 27, pp. 343-346; Nerwich, A., Figdor, D., Messer, H.H., pH changes in root dentin over a 4-week period following root canal dressing with calcium hydroxide (1993) J Endod, 19, pp. 302-306; McCormick, J.E., Weine, F.S., Maggio, J.D., Tissue pH of developing periapical lesions in dogs (1983) J Endod, 9, pp. 47-51; Economides, N., Koulaouzidou, E.A., Beltes, P., In vitro release of hydroxyl ions from calcium hydroxide gutta-percha points (1999) J Endod, 25, pp. 481-482; Zmener, O., Pameijer, C.H., Banegas, G., An in vitro study of the pH of three calcium hydroxide dressing materials (2007) Dent Traumatol, 23, pp. 21-25; Roberston, W.G., Marshall, R.W., Calcium measurements in serum and plasma total and ionized (1979) Cri Rev Clin Lab Sci, 11, pp. 271-304; Sultana, N., Arayne, M.S., Hussain, F., In vitro monitoring of Ciprofloxacin antacids interactions by UV and HPLC (2005) Pak J Pharm Sci, 18, pp. 23-31; Cárdenas, G., Anaya, P., von Plessing, C., Chitosan composite films. Biomedical applications (2008) J Mater Sci Mater Med, 19, pp. 2397-2405; Nayak, U.Y., Gopal, S., Mutalik, S., Glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan microspheres for controlled delivery of Zidovudine (2008) J Microencapsul, 24, pp. 1-9; Berger, J., Reist, M., Mayer, J.M., Structure and interactions in chitosan hydrogels formed by complexation or aggregation for biomedical applications (2004) Eur J Pharma Biopharm, 57, pp. 35-52

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - Introduction: Calcium hydroxide is widely used as an intracanal medicament in endodontics. Its therapeutic effects depend on the dissociation of calcium hydroxide into calcium and hydroxyl ions, which, in turn, depends on the vehicle used. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the sustained release of calcium ions and the pH change of calcium hydroxide over a period of 30 days when formulated with propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 6000, chitosan, and guar gum. Methods: Various formulations were prepared and placed inside the root canals of human teeth and were suspended in glass vials containing distilled water. At specific time intervals, the calcium ion concentration was analyzed using an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. pH changes of the medium were measured at various time intervals up to 30 days. Results: Results revealed that chitosan formulation showed the maximum sustained release of calcium ions compared with the other three formulations. All the formulations exhibited high alkaline pH upto 30 days. Conclusion: From the results of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that chitosan can be used as a promising vehicle for for the sustained release of calcium ions from the calcium hydroxide in the root canal system. © 2010 American Association of Endodontists.

AB - Introduction: Calcium hydroxide is widely used as an intracanal medicament in endodontics. Its therapeutic effects depend on the dissociation of calcium hydroxide into calcium and hydroxyl ions, which, in turn, depends on the vehicle used. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the sustained release of calcium ions and the pH change of calcium hydroxide over a period of 30 days when formulated with propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 6000, chitosan, and guar gum. Methods: Various formulations were prepared and placed inside the root canals of human teeth and were suspended in glass vials containing distilled water. At specific time intervals, the calcium ion concentration was analyzed using an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. pH changes of the medium were measured at various time intervals up to 30 days. Results: Results revealed that chitosan formulation showed the maximum sustained release of calcium ions compared with the other three formulations. All the formulations exhibited high alkaline pH upto 30 days. Conclusion: From the results of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that chitosan can be used as a promising vehicle for for the sustained release of calcium ions from the calcium hydroxide in the root canal system. © 2010 American Association of Endodontists.

U2 - 10.1016/j.joen.2009.12.021

DO - 10.1016/j.joen.2009.12.021

M3 - Article

VL - 36

SP - 862

EP - 866

JO - Journal of Endodontics

JF - Journal of Endodontics

SN - 0099-2399

IS - 5

ER -