India-discovered levonadifloxacin & alalevonadifloxacin: A review on susceptibility testing methods, CLSI quality control and breakpoints along with a brief account of their emerging therapeutic profile as a novel standard-of-care

Drug Discovery group, Wockhardt

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Levonadifloxacin (intravenous) and alalevonadifloxacin (oral prodrug) are novel antibiotics based on benzoquinolizine subclass of fluoroquinolone, licensed for clinical use in India in 2019. The active moiety, levonadifloxacin, is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with a high potency against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus. aureus, multi-drug resistant pneumococci and anaerobes. Objective: This review, for the first time, critically analyses the antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, Clinical Laboratory & Standards Institute (CLSI)-quality control of susceptibility testing and breakpoints of levonadifloxacin. Further, the genesis, discovery and developmental aspects as well as therapeutic profile of levonadifloxacin and alalevonadifloxacin are briefly described. Contents: In order to aid the scientific and clinician communities with a single comprehensive overview on all the key aspects of levonadifloxacin and alalevonadifloxacin, the present article covers the reference MIC and disk diffusion methods for levonadifloxacin susceptibility testing that were approved by CLSI and the reference ranges for quality control strains published in the CLSI M100 document. The breakpoints of levonadifloxacin were derived in concordance to US FDA, European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and CLSI approaches. Further, the article provides a brief account of challenges encountered during the discovery stages of levonadifloxacin and alalevonadifloxacin, activity spectrum and safety benefits accruing from structural novelty-linked mechanism of action. Further, the review also covers in vitro and in vivo activities, registrational clinical studies and patient-friendly features of levonadifloxacin/alalevonadifloxacin. Cumulatively, levonadifloxacin has a potential to offer a long awaited new standard-of-care treatment for the resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Microbiology (miscellaneous)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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