Objectives: Periodontal disease and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) share risk factors like obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, along with evidence of chronic inflammation in the two conditions. Evaluating the influence of PCOS on periodontal health would, therefore, identify a possible association. Materials and methods: Sixty women, divided into equal groups of PCOS and healthy patients, were clinically examined for periodontal parameters like probing depth (PD), plaque index (PI), modified gingival index (mGI), and bleeding on probing (BOP). Fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin (FI), triglycerides (TG), and free testosterone along with serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were the biochemical parameters evaluated. Results: Women with PCOS had statistically significant differences in mGI, PI, testosterone, FBS, and TG when compared with healthy women (p < 0.05). MDA levels in serum and GCF between women with PCOS and controls were also significantly different. BOP and mGI showed a moderate positive correlation (r = 0.45 and 0.44) with serum levels of MDA. Relatively greater gingival inflammation was observed in patients with PCOS compared to healthy controls, independent of the risk factors present. Conclusion: PCOS seemed to have an impact on gingival inflammation, in addition to the effect of dental plaque and other local factors in the oral cavity, in PCOS patients when compared with healthy individuals. Clinical relevance: Women diagnosed with PCOS may have probabaility of co-existing gingival inflammation. Therefore, emphasis on medical treatment for PCOS and periodic screening for periodontal disease may be warranted.
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