The influence of ultrasound on percutaneous absorption of ketorolac tromethamine was studied in vitro across rat skin. Sonication was carried out with a continuous mode, at an intensity of 1-3 W/cm2 and a frequency of 1 MHz for 30 min. A significant increase in permeation of ketorolac through rat skin was observed with the applied sonication at 3 W/cm2 when compared with permeation at 1 and 2 W/cm2. Enhanced ketorolac penetration at 3 W/cm2 can be explained by the mechanical and/or thermal action of ultrasound waves. The distance of the ultrasound probe from the skin surface did not influence the flux of the drug. Pretreatment of skin by 5% d-limonene in ethanol for 2 hr followed by sonication at 3 W/cm 2 (30 min) significantly enhanced the permeation of ketorolac when compared with passive flux with or without enhancer pretreatment.
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||Drug Delivery: Journal of Delivery and Targeting of Therapeutic Agents|
|Publication status||Published - 01-2004|
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