Influence of Ultrasound on the Percutaneous Absorption of Ketorolac Tromethamine in Vitro Across Rat Skin

Sandip B. Tiwari, Raveendra M. Pai, N. Udupa

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The influence of ultrasound on percutaneous absorption of ketorolac tromethamine was studied in vitro across rat skin. Sonication was carried out with a continuous mode, at an intensity of 1-3 W/cm2 and a frequency of 1 MHz for 30 min. A significant increase in permeation of ketorolac through rat skin was observed with the applied sonication at 3 W/cm2 when compared with permeation at 1 and 2 W/cm2. Enhanced ketorolac penetration at 3 W/cm2 can be explained by the mechanical and/or thermal action of ultrasound waves. The distance of the ultrasound probe from the skin surface did not influence the flux of the drug. Pretreatment of skin by 5% d-limonene in ethanol for 2 hr followed by sonication at 3 W/cm 2 (30 min) significantly enhanced the permeation of ketorolac when compared with passive flux with or without enhancer pretreatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47-51
Number of pages5
JournalDrug Delivery: Journal of Delivery and Targeting of Therapeutic Agents
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 01-2004


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology

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