The paper and pulp industry (PPI) produces high quantities of solid and liquid discharge and is regarded as the most polluting industry in the world causing adverse effects to environments and human beings. Hence changes in the way PPI sludge and waste materials are treated is urgently required. Nearly, 10 million tons of waste is generated per year, however PPI waste is enriched with many organic chemicalscontaining a high percentage of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose which can be used as valuable raw materials for the production of bioenergy and value-added chemicals. Pretreatment of complex lignocellulosic materials of PPI waste is difficult because of the cellulose crystallinity and lignin barrier. At present most of this waste is recycled in a conventional treatment approach through biological and chemical processes, incurring high cost and low returns. Henceefficient pretreatment techniques are required by which complete conversion of PPI waste is possible. Therefore, the present chapter provides the scope of integration of pretreatment methods through which bioenergy recovery is possible during the PPI waste treatment. Detailed information is presented on the various pre-treatment techniques (chemical, mechanical, enzymatic and biological) in order to increase the efficiency of PPI waste treatment and energy recovery from PPI waste. Along with acid and alkali based efficient chemical treatment process, physical methods (i.e. shearing, high-pressure homogenization, etc.), biochemical techniques (whole cell-based and enzyme-based) and finally biological techniques (e.g. aerobic and anaerobic treatment) are discussed. During each of the treatment processes, scope of energy recovery and bottlenecks of the processes were elaborated. The review thus provides systemic insight into developing efficient pretreatment processes which could increase carbon recovery and treatment efficiency of PPI waste.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Microbiology (medical)