Inter-rater reliability for visual acuity, refractive error, corneal reflex, and inter-pupillary distance among two masked optometrists in school children population: A pilot study

Avinash Prabhu, Alstreed Marita Pinto, Juthika Talukdar, Ramesh S. Ve

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: To observe the inter-rater reliability between the observers for visual acuity, refractive error, corneal reflex, and inter-pupillary distance. Methods: A random subset of 50 students from primary (1st to 4th grade), higher primary (5th to 7th grade) and secondary school (8th to 10th grade), for a total of 150 students were selected by stratified sampling from the prevalence study VARES (Visual acuity, refractive error, and squint) performed among 1752 school children of Udupi district, India in 2013-2014. The Institutional Ethical Committee & District Health Administration board permission was acquired. There were two examiners: Examiner 1 (JT), a qualified optometrist with two years of experience, and Examiner 2 (MT), an optometry student. Examiners 1 and 2 performed a single measurement for visual acuity using the COMPlog computerized logMAR vision chart at 3 metres; Landolt C or Sloan letter optotypes used. Refractive error, corneal reflex, and inter-pupillary distance was measured by Plusoptix Power-refractor twice by Examiner 1 and thrice by Examiner 2; the average of each value was considered for analysis. Data was tested for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Statistical significance was considered p < 0.05. The agreement between the observers for the two procedures was traced by a Bland-Altman plot. Results: The mean age of the students was 10.21 years (± 2.80 SD). The measurement of agreement for visual acuity (COMPlog) between the examiners was tested using Kappa statistics with 0.79 for OD, p < 0.05 and 1.0 for OS, p < 0.05 supported by Wilcoxon sign rank test showing 0.067 for OD and 0.564 for OS between the observers. The Bland-Altman plot also showed good agreement between the observers. Paired t-test for refractive error showed 0.117 (CI:-0.11¬–0.10) for OD and 0.067 (CI:-0.005–0.157) for OS, with Bland-Altman plot showing good agreement between the observers. Paired t-test showed 0.323 for corneal reflex and 0.520 for inter-pupillary distance. Conclusion: From the results we report that there is no interobserver variability for visual acuity, refractive error, corneal reflex and inter-pupillary distance in school screening with COMPlog and Plusoptix A09.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)160-167
Number of pages8
JournalAsian Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume16
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 01-01-2018

Fingerprint

Blinking
Refractive Errors
Visual Acuity
Students
Population
Nonparametric Statistics
Optometry
Sampling Studies
Observer Variation
Strabismus
India
Cross-Sectional Studies
Optometrists
Health

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ophthalmology

Cite this

@article{46fa8f078fd94c609af78495f740e160,
title = "Inter-rater reliability for visual acuity, refractive error, corneal reflex, and inter-pupillary distance among two masked optometrists in school children population: A pilot study",
abstract = "Purpose: To observe the inter-rater reliability between the observers for visual acuity, refractive error, corneal reflex, and inter-pupillary distance. Methods: A random subset of 50 students from primary (1st to 4th grade), higher primary (5th to 7th grade) and secondary school (8th to 10th grade), for a total of 150 students were selected by stratified sampling from the prevalence study VARES (Visual acuity, refractive error, and squint) performed among 1752 school children of Udupi district, India in 2013-2014. The Institutional Ethical Committee & District Health Administration board permission was acquired. There were two examiners: Examiner 1 (JT), a qualified optometrist with two years of experience, and Examiner 2 (MT), an optometry student. Examiners 1 and 2 performed a single measurement for visual acuity using the COMPlog computerized logMAR vision chart at 3 metres; Landolt C or Sloan letter optotypes used. Refractive error, corneal reflex, and inter-pupillary distance was measured by Plusoptix Power-refractor twice by Examiner 1 and thrice by Examiner 2; the average of each value was considered for analysis. Data was tested for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Statistical significance was considered p < 0.05. The agreement between the observers for the two procedures was traced by a Bland-Altman plot. Results: The mean age of the students was 10.21 years (± 2.80 SD). The measurement of agreement for visual acuity (COMPlog) between the examiners was tested using Kappa statistics with 0.79 for OD, p < 0.05 and 1.0 for OS, p < 0.05 supported by Wilcoxon sign rank test showing 0.067 for OD and 0.564 for OS between the observers. The Bland-Altman plot also showed good agreement between the observers. Paired t-test for refractive error showed 0.117 (CI:-0.11¬–0.10) for OD and 0.067 (CI:-0.005–0.157) for OS, with Bland-Altman plot showing good agreement between the observers. Paired t-test showed 0.323 for corneal reflex and 0.520 for inter-pupillary distance. Conclusion: From the results we report that there is no interobserver variability for visual acuity, refractive error, corneal reflex and inter-pupillary distance in school screening with COMPlog and Plusoptix A09.",
author = "Avinash Prabhu and Pinto, {Alstreed Marita} and Juthika Talukdar and Ve, {Ramesh S.}",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
language = "English",
volume = "16",
pages = "160--167",
journal = "Asian Journal of Ophthalmology",
issn = "1560-2133",
publisher = "Scientific Communications International Ltd.",
number = "3",

}

Inter-rater reliability for visual acuity, refractive error, corneal reflex, and inter-pupillary distance among two masked optometrists in school children population : A pilot study. / Prabhu, Avinash; Pinto, Alstreed Marita; Talukdar, Juthika; Ve, Ramesh S.

In: Asian Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 16, No. 3, 01.01.2018, p. 160-167.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Inter-rater reliability for visual acuity, refractive error, corneal reflex, and inter-pupillary distance among two masked optometrists in school children population

T2 - A pilot study

AU - Prabhu, Avinash

AU - Pinto, Alstreed Marita

AU - Talukdar, Juthika

AU - Ve, Ramesh S.

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Purpose: To observe the inter-rater reliability between the observers for visual acuity, refractive error, corneal reflex, and inter-pupillary distance. Methods: A random subset of 50 students from primary (1st to 4th grade), higher primary (5th to 7th grade) and secondary school (8th to 10th grade), for a total of 150 students were selected by stratified sampling from the prevalence study VARES (Visual acuity, refractive error, and squint) performed among 1752 school children of Udupi district, India in 2013-2014. The Institutional Ethical Committee & District Health Administration board permission was acquired. There were two examiners: Examiner 1 (JT), a qualified optometrist with two years of experience, and Examiner 2 (MT), an optometry student. Examiners 1 and 2 performed a single measurement for visual acuity using the COMPlog computerized logMAR vision chart at 3 metres; Landolt C or Sloan letter optotypes used. Refractive error, corneal reflex, and inter-pupillary distance was measured by Plusoptix Power-refractor twice by Examiner 1 and thrice by Examiner 2; the average of each value was considered for analysis. Data was tested for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Statistical significance was considered p < 0.05. The agreement between the observers for the two procedures was traced by a Bland-Altman plot. Results: The mean age of the students was 10.21 years (± 2.80 SD). The measurement of agreement for visual acuity (COMPlog) between the examiners was tested using Kappa statistics with 0.79 for OD, p < 0.05 and 1.0 for OS, p < 0.05 supported by Wilcoxon sign rank test showing 0.067 for OD and 0.564 for OS between the observers. The Bland-Altman plot also showed good agreement between the observers. Paired t-test for refractive error showed 0.117 (CI:-0.11¬–0.10) for OD and 0.067 (CI:-0.005–0.157) for OS, with Bland-Altman plot showing good agreement between the observers. Paired t-test showed 0.323 for corneal reflex and 0.520 for inter-pupillary distance. Conclusion: From the results we report that there is no interobserver variability for visual acuity, refractive error, corneal reflex and inter-pupillary distance in school screening with COMPlog and Plusoptix A09.

AB - Purpose: To observe the inter-rater reliability between the observers for visual acuity, refractive error, corneal reflex, and inter-pupillary distance. Methods: A random subset of 50 students from primary (1st to 4th grade), higher primary (5th to 7th grade) and secondary school (8th to 10th grade), for a total of 150 students were selected by stratified sampling from the prevalence study VARES (Visual acuity, refractive error, and squint) performed among 1752 school children of Udupi district, India in 2013-2014. The Institutional Ethical Committee & District Health Administration board permission was acquired. There were two examiners: Examiner 1 (JT), a qualified optometrist with two years of experience, and Examiner 2 (MT), an optometry student. Examiners 1 and 2 performed a single measurement for visual acuity using the COMPlog computerized logMAR vision chart at 3 metres; Landolt C or Sloan letter optotypes used. Refractive error, corneal reflex, and inter-pupillary distance was measured by Plusoptix Power-refractor twice by Examiner 1 and thrice by Examiner 2; the average of each value was considered for analysis. Data was tested for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Statistical significance was considered p < 0.05. The agreement between the observers for the two procedures was traced by a Bland-Altman plot. Results: The mean age of the students was 10.21 years (± 2.80 SD). The measurement of agreement for visual acuity (COMPlog) between the examiners was tested using Kappa statistics with 0.79 for OD, p < 0.05 and 1.0 for OS, p < 0.05 supported by Wilcoxon sign rank test showing 0.067 for OD and 0.564 for OS between the observers. The Bland-Altman plot also showed good agreement between the observers. Paired t-test for refractive error showed 0.117 (CI:-0.11¬–0.10) for OD and 0.067 (CI:-0.005–0.157) for OS, with Bland-Altman plot showing good agreement between the observers. Paired t-test showed 0.323 for corneal reflex and 0.520 for inter-pupillary distance. Conclusion: From the results we report that there is no interobserver variability for visual acuity, refractive error, corneal reflex and inter-pupillary distance in school screening with COMPlog and Plusoptix A09.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85064916063&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85064916063&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85064916063

VL - 16

SP - 160

EP - 167

JO - Asian Journal of Ophthalmology

JF - Asian Journal of Ophthalmology

SN - 1560-2133

IS - 3

ER -