Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are commonly seen in immunosuppressed individuals but their epidemiology in critically ill patients has not been well described. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, risk factors and outcome of invasive fungal infections in a medical intensive care unit. A prospective observational study was carried out between August 2016 and March 2018 in the medical intensive care unit. Patients above the age of 14 years with endotracheal intubation and/or central venous catheter for at-least three days and sepsis (not responding to 48 hours of intravenous antibiotic therapy) were included in the study. Suitable samples were collected and were subjected to fungal diagnostics. Invasive fungal disease was defined according to standard guidelines. Of the 100 recruited patients, a total of 11 patients had invasive aspergillosis, three patients had invasive candidiasis and one patient had both invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. IFI was more commonly seen in patients with auto-immune diseases (p = 0.002, odds ratio-10.13 (95% CI: 2.3-44)). A mortality of 73% was observed in patients with IFI. In conclusion, IFI, especially aspergillosis is grossly under-reported in critical settings. Early suspicion, thorough investigation and timely diagnosis may alleviate patients of significant mortality and morbidity.
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