Starch from a given botanical source can vary considerably in terms of physicochemical properties in its native and hydrolyzed forms. The current study investigated the structural and functional characteristics of starch from ten indigenous rice varieties endemic to Northeast India. In vitro enzymatic hydrolysis was used to reveal the dextrose equivalent profile of each type of starch. Gezep Sali and Betguti Sali respectively exhibited the highest and lowest starch hydrolysis. Among the ten rice varieties, amylose content varied between 7.50 and 28.58%. Optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the polyhedral shape of the native starch granules and deformation of the shape upon enzymatic hydrolysis. Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the presence of and variations in starch crystallinity. XRD revealed spectral peaks characteristic of A-type starch crystals in the native form. The elevated intensity of XRD peaks in hydrolyzed starch granules confirmed the occurrence of amylose hydrolysis rather than hydrolysis in amylopectin regions. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra revealed the common stretching and bending of bonds in all native starches; however, changes were observed in the fingerprint region (1080, 1000, 926 cm−1) of hydrolyzed starch granules, which indicates the amylolysis of the amylose region and disturbances in the ordered arrangement in the crystalline part. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) endotherms revealed the highest and lowest gelatinization peak temperatures in Harfoni (78 °C) and Tulosi Sali (41 °C) rice cultivars, respectively. The findings in this study can help to optimize the usage of rice starch in food and non-food industries. Furthermore, understanding the control points of starch digestion and genetically tailoring rice grains with different digestibility could be beneficial for nutraceutical applications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science
- Chemical Engineering(all)