TY - JOUR

T1 - Irreversibility Analysis in the Ethylene Glycol Based Hybrid Nanofluid Flow amongst Expanding/Contracting Walls When Quadratic Thermal Radiation and Arrhenius Activation Energy Are Significant

AU - Lavanya, Bommana

AU - Kumar, Jorige Girish

AU - Babu, Macherla Jayachandra

AU - Raju, Chakravarthula Sivakrishnam

AU - Shah, Nehad Ali

AU - Junsawang, Prem

N1 - Funding Information:
This research received funding support from the NSRF via the Program Management Unit for Human Resources & Institutional Development, Research and Innovation.
Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.

PY - 2022/8

Y1 - 2022/8

N2 - In this new era of the fluid field, researchers are interested in hybrid nanofluids because of their thermal properties and potential, which are better than those of nanofluids when it comes to increasing the rate at which heat is transferred. Compared to the dynamics of radiative Ethylene Glycol-Zinc Oxide (nanofluid) and Ethylene Glycol-Zinc Oxide-Titanium Dioxide (hybrid nanofluid) flows between two permeable expanding/contracting walls, nothing is known in terms of Lorentz force, heat source, and the activation energy. The thermo-physical characteristics of Ethylene Glycol, Zinc Oxide nanoparticles, and Titanium Dioxide nanoparticles are used in this study to derive the governing equations for the transport of both dynamics. Governing equations are converted as a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (with the aid of suitable similarity mutations), and then the MATLAB bvp4c solver is used to solve the equations. This study’s significant findings are that rise in the reaction rate constant increases mass transfer rate, whereas an increase in the activation energy parameter decreases it. The mass transfer rate decreases at a rate of 0.04669 (in the case of hybrid nanofluid) and 0.04721 (in the case of nanofluid) when activation energy ((Formula presented.)) takes input in the range (Formula presented.). It has been noticed that the velocity profiles are greater when the walls are expanding as opposed to when they are contracting. It is detected that the heat transfer rate reduces as the heat source parameter increases. The heat transfer rate drops at a rate of 0.9734 (in the case of hybrid Nanofluid) and 0.97925 (in the case of nanofluid) when the heat source parameter ((Formula presented.)) takes input in the range (Formula presented.). In addition, it has been observed that the entropy generation increases as the Brinkmann number rises.

AB - In this new era of the fluid field, researchers are interested in hybrid nanofluids because of their thermal properties and potential, which are better than those of nanofluids when it comes to increasing the rate at which heat is transferred. Compared to the dynamics of radiative Ethylene Glycol-Zinc Oxide (nanofluid) and Ethylene Glycol-Zinc Oxide-Titanium Dioxide (hybrid nanofluid) flows between two permeable expanding/contracting walls, nothing is known in terms of Lorentz force, heat source, and the activation energy. The thermo-physical characteristics of Ethylene Glycol, Zinc Oxide nanoparticles, and Titanium Dioxide nanoparticles are used in this study to derive the governing equations for the transport of both dynamics. Governing equations are converted as a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (with the aid of suitable similarity mutations), and then the MATLAB bvp4c solver is used to solve the equations. This study’s significant findings are that rise in the reaction rate constant increases mass transfer rate, whereas an increase in the activation energy parameter decreases it. The mass transfer rate decreases at a rate of 0.04669 (in the case of hybrid nanofluid) and 0.04721 (in the case of nanofluid) when activation energy ((Formula presented.)) takes input in the range (Formula presented.). It has been noticed that the velocity profiles are greater when the walls are expanding as opposed to when they are contracting. It is detected that the heat transfer rate reduces as the heat source parameter increases. The heat transfer rate drops at a rate of 0.9734 (in the case of hybrid Nanofluid) and 0.97925 (in the case of nanofluid) when the heat source parameter ((Formula presented.)) takes input in the range (Formula presented.). In addition, it has been observed that the entropy generation increases as the Brinkmann number rises.

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U2 - 10.3390/math10162984

DO - 10.3390/math10162984

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85137413156

SN - 2227-7390

VL - 10

JO - Mathematics

JF - Mathematics

IS - 16

M1 - 2984

ER -