Introduction: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is known to invoke both immunological and inflammatory responses. While the neutrophils mediate the tumor-induced inflammatory response, the lymphocytes bring about the various immunological events associated with it. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a simple indicator of this dual response. We investigated the association between preoperative NLR and histopathological prognostic variables of RCC intending to find out whether it can be of value as a red flag capable of alerting the clinician as to the biological character of the tumor under consideration. Methods: Preoperative NLR and clinicopathological variables, namely histological subtype, nuclear grade, staging, lymphovascular invasion, capsular invasion, tumor necrosis, renal sinus invasion, and sarcomatoid differentiation of 60 patients who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy, were analyzed to detect the association between the two. Results: We found that mean preoperative NLR was significantly higher in clear-cell carcinomas (3.25 ± 0.29) when compared with nonclear-cell carcinomas (2.25 ± 0.63). There was a linear trend of NLR rise as the stage of the disease advanced. A significant rise in preoperative NLR was noted in tumors with various high-risk histopathological features such as tumor size, capsular invasion, tumor necrosis, and sarcomatoid differentiation. Conclusion: Preoperative measurement of NLR is a simple test which may provide an early clue of high-risk pathological features of renal cell cancer.
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