Laboratory indicators of mastitis are not associated with elevated HIV-1 DNA loads or predictive of HIV-1 RNA loads in breast milk

Soren Gantt, Avinash K. Shetty, Kristy D. Seidel, Kuda Matasa, Georgina Musingwini, Godfrey Woelk, Lynn S. Zijenah, David A. Katzenstein, Lisa M. Frenkel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 has been associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic mastitis and with the quantity of HIV-1 RNA and DNA in maternal milk. An improved understanding of the relationship between indicators of inflammation and HIV-1 loads in breast milk could improve MTCT prevention strategies. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, laboratory indicators of mastitis (breast milk sodium [Na +] concentration, sodium:potassium ratio [Na +:K +], and leukocyte count) were related to breast milk HIV-1 RNA and DNA loads and were evaluated for predicting viral loads in milk. Results. Mastitis was present in 63 (15%) of 407, 60 (15%) of 407, and 76 (18%) of 412 milk specimens, as defined by Na + concentration >12 mmol/L, Na +:K + >1, and total leukocyte counts ≥106 cells/mL, respectively. Each indicator was associated with an increased milk HIV-1 RNA load (P < .05) but not with HIV-1 DNA load. Neutrophils correlated better with milk HIV-1 RNA load than total leukocytes. However, neither neutrophil count, Na + concentration, nor Na +:K + displayed a threshold that was both sensitive and specific for the detection of HIV-1 RNA in milk at thresholds of ≥50 or ≥10 4 copies/mL. Conclusions. HIV-1 DNA loads in breast milk were not increased during mastitis. Neither milk cell counts nor electrolyte concentrations were useful predictors of milk HIV-1 RNA or DNA loads for individual women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)570-576
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Volume196
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15-08-2007
Externally publishedYes

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Mastitis
Human Milk
HIV-1
RNA
Milk
DNA
Mothers
Leukocyte Count
Neutrophils
Sodium
Viral Load
Electrolytes
Potassium
Leukocytes
Cell Count
Cross-Sectional Studies
Inflammation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Immunology

Cite this

Gantt, S., Shetty, A. K., Seidel, K. D., Matasa, K., Musingwini, G., Woelk, G., ... Frenkel, L. M. (2007). Laboratory indicators of mastitis are not associated with elevated HIV-1 DNA loads or predictive of HIV-1 RNA loads in breast milk. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 196(4), 570-576. https://doi.org/10.1086/519843
Gantt, Soren ; Shetty, Avinash K. ; Seidel, Kristy D. ; Matasa, Kuda ; Musingwini, Georgina ; Woelk, Godfrey ; Zijenah, Lynn S. ; Katzenstein, David A. ; Frenkel, Lisa M. / Laboratory indicators of mastitis are not associated with elevated HIV-1 DNA loads or predictive of HIV-1 RNA loads in breast milk. In: Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2007 ; Vol. 196, No. 4. pp. 570-576.
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abstract = "Background. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 has been associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic mastitis and with the quantity of HIV-1 RNA and DNA in maternal milk. An improved understanding of the relationship between indicators of inflammation and HIV-1 loads in breast milk could improve MTCT prevention strategies. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, laboratory indicators of mastitis (breast milk sodium [Na +] concentration, sodium:potassium ratio [Na +:K +], and leukocyte count) were related to breast milk HIV-1 RNA and DNA loads and were evaluated for predicting viral loads in milk. Results. Mastitis was present in 63 (15{\%}) of 407, 60 (15{\%}) of 407, and 76 (18{\%}) of 412 milk specimens, as defined by Na + concentration >12 mmol/L, Na +:K + >1, and total leukocyte counts ≥106 cells/mL, respectively. Each indicator was associated with an increased milk HIV-1 RNA load (P < .05) but not with HIV-1 DNA load. Neutrophils correlated better with milk HIV-1 RNA load than total leukocytes. However, neither neutrophil count, Na + concentration, nor Na +:K + displayed a threshold that was both sensitive and specific for the detection of HIV-1 RNA in milk at thresholds of ≥50 or ≥10 4 copies/mL. Conclusions. HIV-1 DNA loads in breast milk were not increased during mastitis. Neither milk cell counts nor electrolyte concentrations were useful predictors of milk HIV-1 RNA or DNA loads for individual women.",
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Gantt, S, Shetty, AK, Seidel, KD, Matasa, K, Musingwini, G, Woelk, G, Zijenah, LS, Katzenstein, DA & Frenkel, LM 2007, 'Laboratory indicators of mastitis are not associated with elevated HIV-1 DNA loads or predictive of HIV-1 RNA loads in breast milk', Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 196, no. 4, pp. 570-576. https://doi.org/10.1086/519843

Laboratory indicators of mastitis are not associated with elevated HIV-1 DNA loads or predictive of HIV-1 RNA loads in breast milk. / Gantt, Soren; Shetty, Avinash K.; Seidel, Kristy D.; Matasa, Kuda; Musingwini, Georgina; Woelk, Godfrey; Zijenah, Lynn S.; Katzenstein, David A.; Frenkel, Lisa M.

In: Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 196, No. 4, 15.08.2007, p. 570-576.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Laboratory indicators of mastitis are not associated with elevated HIV-1 DNA loads or predictive of HIV-1 RNA loads in breast milk

AU - Gantt, Soren

AU - Shetty, Avinash K.

AU - Seidel, Kristy D.

AU - Matasa, Kuda

AU - Musingwini, Georgina

AU - Woelk, Godfrey

AU - Zijenah, Lynn S.

AU - Katzenstein, David A.

AU - Frenkel, Lisa M.

PY - 2007/8/15

Y1 - 2007/8/15

N2 - Background. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 has been associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic mastitis and with the quantity of HIV-1 RNA and DNA in maternal milk. An improved understanding of the relationship between indicators of inflammation and HIV-1 loads in breast milk could improve MTCT prevention strategies. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, laboratory indicators of mastitis (breast milk sodium [Na +] concentration, sodium:potassium ratio [Na +:K +], and leukocyte count) were related to breast milk HIV-1 RNA and DNA loads and were evaluated for predicting viral loads in milk. Results. Mastitis was present in 63 (15%) of 407, 60 (15%) of 407, and 76 (18%) of 412 milk specimens, as defined by Na + concentration >12 mmol/L, Na +:K + >1, and total leukocyte counts ≥106 cells/mL, respectively. Each indicator was associated with an increased milk HIV-1 RNA load (P < .05) but not with HIV-1 DNA load. Neutrophils correlated better with milk HIV-1 RNA load than total leukocytes. However, neither neutrophil count, Na + concentration, nor Na +:K + displayed a threshold that was both sensitive and specific for the detection of HIV-1 RNA in milk at thresholds of ≥50 or ≥10 4 copies/mL. Conclusions. HIV-1 DNA loads in breast milk were not increased during mastitis. Neither milk cell counts nor electrolyte concentrations were useful predictors of milk HIV-1 RNA or DNA loads for individual women.

AB - Background. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 has been associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic mastitis and with the quantity of HIV-1 RNA and DNA in maternal milk. An improved understanding of the relationship between indicators of inflammation and HIV-1 loads in breast milk could improve MTCT prevention strategies. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, laboratory indicators of mastitis (breast milk sodium [Na +] concentration, sodium:potassium ratio [Na +:K +], and leukocyte count) were related to breast milk HIV-1 RNA and DNA loads and were evaluated for predicting viral loads in milk. Results. Mastitis was present in 63 (15%) of 407, 60 (15%) of 407, and 76 (18%) of 412 milk specimens, as defined by Na + concentration >12 mmol/L, Na +:K + >1, and total leukocyte counts ≥106 cells/mL, respectively. Each indicator was associated with an increased milk HIV-1 RNA load (P < .05) but not with HIV-1 DNA load. Neutrophils correlated better with milk HIV-1 RNA load than total leukocytes. However, neither neutrophil count, Na + concentration, nor Na +:K + displayed a threshold that was both sensitive and specific for the detection of HIV-1 RNA in milk at thresholds of ≥50 or ≥10 4 copies/mL. Conclusions. HIV-1 DNA loads in breast milk were not increased during mastitis. Neither milk cell counts nor electrolyte concentrations were useful predictors of milk HIV-1 RNA or DNA loads for individual women.

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