Leptospirosis diagnosis

Competancy of various laboratory tests

Suman Veerappa Budihal, Khalid Perwez

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Leptospira can be found in virtually all tropical and temperate areas of the world and is presumed to be the most wide spread zoonoses in the world.Humans contact leptospirosis through mucosal or percutaneous exposure to leptospires in environments contaminated by the urine of chronically infected animal sources.Despite being common, the diagnosis of leptospirosis is often not made unless a patient presents with textbook manifestations of the so called Weil's disease, such as fever plus jaundice, renal failure and pulmonary haemorrhage. Leptospiral infection often has minimal or no clinical manifestations; of the cases in which fever develops, as many as 90% are undifferentiated febrile illnesses. Because of the variety of clinical symptoms seen in the symptomatic cases, leptospirosis at its onset is often misdiagnosed as aseptic meningitis, influenza, hepatic disease or fever (pyrexia) of unknown origin. Moreover, clinicians may fail to recognize that transmission of leptospirosis can occur in the urban setting because it is incorrectly perceived to be a rural disease. Therefore, diagnosis is based on laboratory tests rather than on clinical symptoms alone. In developing countries, laboratory facilities may be inadequate for diagnosis despite a high prevalence of the disease. Of substantial clinical importance, the syndrome of leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhage has emerged in recent years, in diverse places around the world.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199-202
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research
Volume8
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12-01-2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Leptospirosis
Fever
Hemorrhage
Aseptic Meningitis
Fever of Unknown Origin
Leptospira
Lung
Textbooks
Zoonoses
Jaundice
Diagnostic Errors
Developing countries
Human Influenza
Developing Countries
Renal Insufficiency
Animals
Urine
Liver
Infection

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Biochemistry

Cite this

Budihal, Suman Veerappa ; Perwez, Khalid. / Leptospirosis diagnosis : Competancy of various laboratory tests. In: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2014 ; Vol. 8, No. 1. pp. 199-202.
@article{d489422b65ba40d6b5e99b3f6814ebb0,
title = "Leptospirosis diagnosis: Competancy of various laboratory tests",
abstract = "Leptospira can be found in virtually all tropical and temperate areas of the world and is presumed to be the most wide spread zoonoses in the world.Humans contact leptospirosis through mucosal or percutaneous exposure to leptospires in environments contaminated by the urine of chronically infected animal sources.Despite being common, the diagnosis of leptospirosis is often not made unless a patient presents with textbook manifestations of the so called Weil's disease, such as fever plus jaundice, renal failure and pulmonary haemorrhage. Leptospiral infection often has minimal or no clinical manifestations; of the cases in which fever develops, as many as 90{\%} are undifferentiated febrile illnesses. Because of the variety of clinical symptoms seen in the symptomatic cases, leptospirosis at its onset is often misdiagnosed as aseptic meningitis, influenza, hepatic disease or fever (pyrexia) of unknown origin. Moreover, clinicians may fail to recognize that transmission of leptospirosis can occur in the urban setting because it is incorrectly perceived to be a rural disease. Therefore, diagnosis is based on laboratory tests rather than on clinical symptoms alone. In developing countries, laboratory facilities may be inadequate for diagnosis despite a high prevalence of the disease. Of substantial clinical importance, the syndrome of leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhage has emerged in recent years, in diverse places around the world.",
author = "Budihal, {Suman Veerappa} and Khalid Perwez",
year = "2014",
month = "1",
day = "12",
doi = "10.7860/JCDR/2014/6593.3950",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
pages = "199--202",
journal = "Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research",
issn = "2249-782X",
publisher = "Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research",
number = "1",

}

Leptospirosis diagnosis : Competancy of various laboratory tests. / Budihal, Suman Veerappa; Perwez, Khalid.

In: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, Vol. 8, No. 1, 12.01.2014, p. 199-202.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Leptospirosis diagnosis

T2 - Competancy of various laboratory tests

AU - Budihal, Suman Veerappa

AU - Perwez, Khalid

PY - 2014/1/12

Y1 - 2014/1/12

N2 - Leptospira can be found in virtually all tropical and temperate areas of the world and is presumed to be the most wide spread zoonoses in the world.Humans contact leptospirosis through mucosal or percutaneous exposure to leptospires in environments contaminated by the urine of chronically infected animal sources.Despite being common, the diagnosis of leptospirosis is often not made unless a patient presents with textbook manifestations of the so called Weil's disease, such as fever plus jaundice, renal failure and pulmonary haemorrhage. Leptospiral infection often has minimal or no clinical manifestations; of the cases in which fever develops, as many as 90% are undifferentiated febrile illnesses. Because of the variety of clinical symptoms seen in the symptomatic cases, leptospirosis at its onset is often misdiagnosed as aseptic meningitis, influenza, hepatic disease or fever (pyrexia) of unknown origin. Moreover, clinicians may fail to recognize that transmission of leptospirosis can occur in the urban setting because it is incorrectly perceived to be a rural disease. Therefore, diagnosis is based on laboratory tests rather than on clinical symptoms alone. In developing countries, laboratory facilities may be inadequate for diagnosis despite a high prevalence of the disease. Of substantial clinical importance, the syndrome of leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhage has emerged in recent years, in diverse places around the world.

AB - Leptospira can be found in virtually all tropical and temperate areas of the world and is presumed to be the most wide spread zoonoses in the world.Humans contact leptospirosis through mucosal or percutaneous exposure to leptospires in environments contaminated by the urine of chronically infected animal sources.Despite being common, the diagnosis of leptospirosis is often not made unless a patient presents with textbook manifestations of the so called Weil's disease, such as fever plus jaundice, renal failure and pulmonary haemorrhage. Leptospiral infection often has minimal or no clinical manifestations; of the cases in which fever develops, as many as 90% are undifferentiated febrile illnesses. Because of the variety of clinical symptoms seen in the symptomatic cases, leptospirosis at its onset is often misdiagnosed as aseptic meningitis, influenza, hepatic disease or fever (pyrexia) of unknown origin. Moreover, clinicians may fail to recognize that transmission of leptospirosis can occur in the urban setting because it is incorrectly perceived to be a rural disease. Therefore, diagnosis is based on laboratory tests rather than on clinical symptoms alone. In developing countries, laboratory facilities may be inadequate for diagnosis despite a high prevalence of the disease. Of substantial clinical importance, the syndrome of leptospiral pulmonary haemorrhage has emerged in recent years, in diverse places around the world.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84892719126&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84892719126&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.7860/JCDR/2014/6593.3950

DO - 10.7860/JCDR/2014/6593.3950

M3 - Review article

VL - 8

SP - 199

EP - 202

JO - Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research

JF - Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research

SN - 2249-782X

IS - 1

ER -