Limited mouth opening in oral submucous fibrosis: reasons, ramifications, and remedies

Mohit Sharma, Raghu Radhakrishnan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Limited mouth opening (LMO) in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) has been attributed to both the submucosal and muscle fibrosis (MF). While reflectory trismus was proposed before as an auxiliary mechanism by another group, the stretch-mediated muscle damage (MSD), histopathological changes in blood vessels (such as endothelial dysfunction, endothelial hypertrophy, and endarteritis obliterans), and upregulated anaerobic isoforms of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) have been proposed by us as complementary events leading to MF. Additionally, the amount of hypoxia-mediated upregulation of anaerobic isoforms of LDH determines the extent of MF. Radiotherapy (RT)-mediated release of reactive oxygen species causes vascular damage thereby worsening hypoxia. While the alteration in LDH levels secondary to hypoxia enhances fibrosis, RT worsens it. Oral squamous cell carcinoma occurring in the background of OSF is an absolute contraindication for RT as it augurs unfavorable prognosis. An algorithm to demonstrate this with evidence is clearly depicted. The role of HIF-1α in the progression of OSF and its malignant transformation, and the consideration of hyperbaric oxygen therapy as a therapeutic remedy in OSF are underscored.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)424-430
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Oral Pathology and Medicine
Volume46
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-07-2017

Fingerprint

Oral Submucous Fibrosis
Mouth
Fibrosis
L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
Muscles
Radiotherapy
Blood Vessels
Protein Isoforms
Endarteritis
Trismus
Hyperbaric Oxygenation
Hypertrophy
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Reactive Oxygen Species
Up-Regulation
Hypoxia

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Cancer Research
  • Periodontics

Cite this

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abstract = "Limited mouth opening (LMO) in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) has been attributed to both the submucosal and muscle fibrosis (MF). While reflectory trismus was proposed before as an auxiliary mechanism by another group, the stretch-mediated muscle damage (MSD), histopathological changes in blood vessels (such as endothelial dysfunction, endothelial hypertrophy, and endarteritis obliterans), and upregulated anaerobic isoforms of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) have been proposed by us as complementary events leading to MF. Additionally, the amount of hypoxia-mediated upregulation of anaerobic isoforms of LDH determines the extent of MF. Radiotherapy (RT)-mediated release of reactive oxygen species causes vascular damage thereby worsening hypoxia. While the alteration in LDH levels secondary to hypoxia enhances fibrosis, RT worsens it. Oral squamous cell carcinoma occurring in the background of OSF is an absolute contraindication for RT as it augurs unfavorable prognosis. An algorithm to demonstrate this with evidence is clearly depicted. The role of HIF-1α in the progression of OSF and its malignant transformation, and the consideration of hyperbaric oxygen therapy as a therapeutic remedy in OSF are underscored.",
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Limited mouth opening in oral submucous fibrosis : reasons, ramifications, and remedies. / Sharma, Mohit; Radhakrishnan, Raghu.

In: Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, Vol. 46, No. 6, 01.07.2017, p. 424-430.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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AB - Limited mouth opening (LMO) in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) has been attributed to both the submucosal and muscle fibrosis (MF). While reflectory trismus was proposed before as an auxiliary mechanism by another group, the stretch-mediated muscle damage (MSD), histopathological changes in blood vessels (such as endothelial dysfunction, endothelial hypertrophy, and endarteritis obliterans), and upregulated anaerobic isoforms of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) have been proposed by us as complementary events leading to MF. Additionally, the amount of hypoxia-mediated upregulation of anaerobic isoforms of LDH determines the extent of MF. Radiotherapy (RT)-mediated release of reactive oxygen species causes vascular damage thereby worsening hypoxia. While the alteration in LDH levels secondary to hypoxia enhances fibrosis, RT worsens it. Oral squamous cell carcinoma occurring in the background of OSF is an absolute contraindication for RT as it augurs unfavorable prognosis. An algorithm to demonstrate this with evidence is clearly depicted. The role of HIF-1α in the progression of OSF and its malignant transformation, and the consideration of hyperbaric oxygen therapy as a therapeutic remedy in OSF are underscored.

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