Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common chronic disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently available antidiabetic agents work by different mechanisms to lower blood glucose levels. Available treatments (such as metformin, sulfonylureas, glitazones, and insulin) have proven unsatisfactory in producing a long-lasting impact on glycemic control. In addition, most of these treatments have undesirable side effects such as weight gain and hypoglycemia. As a result, exploring new treatment targets and new therapies is mandatory in order to treat this condition. The incretin pathway, in particular glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), plays an important pathological role in the development of T2DM, and treatments targeting the incretin system have recently become available. The actions of GLP-1 include (a) a stimulation of insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner, (b) a suppression of glucagon, (c) a reduction in appetite and food intake, (d) a deceleration of gastric emptying, (e) a stimulation of ß-cell neogenesis, growth and differentiation in animal and tissue culture experiments. Intravenous GLP-1 can normalize and subcutaneous GLP-1 can significantly lower plasma glucose in the majority of patients with Type 2 diabetes. Current data suggest that liraglutide significant reductions in fasting and postprandial plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Liraglutide is well tolerated and does not increase hypoglycemia. Liraglutide, a GLP-1 analog, offers a novel treatment option for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences|
|Publication status||Published - 2010|