Magnetic activated charcoal/Fe2O3 nanocomposite (AC/Fe2O3NC) was fabricated using Spondias dulcis leaf extract by a facile method and used for the adsorptive removal of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) from aqueous solutions for the first time. The nanocomposite was characterized by methods such as FE-SEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR, TGA, VSM, and BET to identify and confirm the surface morphology, elemental composition, crystalline nature, functional groups, thermal stability, magnetic behavior, and surface area respectively. Box-Behnken Design (BBD) – an optimization method, which belongs to the Response surface methodology (RSM) and a modeling tool – Artificial Neural Network (ANN) were employed to design, optimize and predict the relationship between the input parameters (pH, initial concentration of 2,4-D, time and agitation speed) versus the output parameter (adsorption efficiency of 2,4-D). Adsorption efficiency of 98.12% was obtained at optimum conditions (pH: 2.05, initial concentration: 32 ppm, contact time: 100 min, agitation speed: 130 rpm, temperature: 30 °C, and dosage: 0.2 g/L). The predictive ability of the ANN was superior (R2 = 0.99) than the quadratic model, given by the RSM (R2 = 0.93). The equilibrium data were best-fitted to Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.9944) and the kinetics obeyed pseudo-second-order model (R2 = 0.9993) satisfactorily. Thermodynamic studies revealed the spontaneity and exothermic nature of adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity, qm was found to be 255.10 mg/g, substantially larger than the reported values for 2,4-D adsorption by other magnetic nanoadsorbents. Therefore, this nanoadsorbent may be utilized as an excellent alternative for the elimination of 2,4-D from the waterbodies.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis