Background: Lifestyle modification (LSM) such as prudent diet, physical activity, avoidance of smoking, and maintaining a healthy weight may considerably decrease the risk for coronary artery disease. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to develop a new LSM scoring system and investigate the correlation between adherence to LSM and incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) at 12-month follow-up. Method: A total of 1000 consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) were included in this prospective single-center study. Manipal lifestyle modification score (MLSMS) was developed by using five lifestyle-related factors. Adherence to LSM at the baseline and subsequent follow-ups was determined by using MLSMS. The MACE at 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up were analyzed. Results: There was a significant reduction in overall adherence to LSM (p < 0.001) at 12-month follow-up. Nonadherence to LSM [hazard ratio (HR) 0.575; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.334–0.990; p < 0.046] and noncompliance to medication (HR 2.09; 95% CI 1.425–3.072; p < 0.001) were independent predictors of MACEs after PTCA. The cumulative MACE was 15.4%, which includes 4.9% of all-cause death, 5.2% of nonfatal myocardial infarction, 2.0% of target lesion revascularization, 1.8% of target vessel revascularization, and 1.3% of stroke at 12 months. The incidence of MACEs at 12 months was significantly (p = 0.03) higher in LSM nonadherent compared with LSM adherent patients. Conclusion: There is an overall reduction in adherence to LSM on successive follow-ups and a significant association between the incidence of MACEs and the lack of adherence to LSM. MLSMS is a simple and effective evaluation tool in predicting MACEs in this group of patients.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine