Cervical cancer (CC) is a major gynecological problem in developing and underdeveloped countries. Despite the significant advancement in early detection and treatment modalities, several patients recur. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms responsible for CC recurrence remains obscure. The patients with CC recurrence often show poor prognosis and significantly high mortality rates. The clinical management of recurrent CC depends on treatment history, site, and extent of the recurrence. Owing to poor prognosis and limited treatment options, recurrent CC often presents a challenge to the clinicians. Several in vitro, in vivo, and patient studies have led to the identification of the critical molecular changes responsible for CC recurrence. Both aberrant genetic and epigenetic modifications leading to altered cell signaling pathways have been reported to impact CC recurrence. Researchers are currently trying to dissect the molecular pathways in CC and translate these findings for better management of disease. This article attempts to review the existing knowledge of disease relapse, accompanying challenges, and associated molecular players in CC.
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