Efforts to discover antiviral drugs and diagnostic platforms have intensified to an unprecedented level since the outbreak of COVID-19. Nano-sized endosomal vesicles called exosomes have gained considerable attention from researchers due to their role in intracellular communication to regulate the biological activity of target cells through cargo proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. According to recent studies, exosomes play a vital role in viral diseases including covid-19, with their interaction with the host immune system opening the door to effective antiviral treatments. Utilizing the intrinsic nature of exosomes, it is imperative to elucidate how exosomes exert their effect on the immune system or boost viral infectivity. Exosome biogenesis machinery is hijacked by viruses to initiate replication, spread infection, and evade the immune response. Exosomes, however, also participate in protective mechanisms by triggering the innate immune system. Besides that, exosomes released from the cells can carry a robust amount of information about the diseased state, serving as a potential biomarker for detecting viral diseases. This review describes how exosomes increase virus infectivity, act as immunomodulators, and function as a potential drug delivery carrier and diagnostic biomarker for diseases caused by HIV, Hepatitis, Ebola, and Epstein-Barr viruses. Furthermore, the review analyzes various applications of exosomes within the context of COVID-19, including its management.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cell Biology