Background: As the incidence of HIV infection has increased its neurological complications are being encountered in our clinical practice. Toxoplasmosis is a common cerebral opportunistic infection seen in HIV-infected patients, even though the incidence has declined with the use of antiretroviral therapy. Establishing a definitive diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis is difficult in resource limited settings. Clinical case: A 20 year old gentleman was referred to our institute as a case of stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of his brain showed multiple ill-defined and nodular enhancing lesions in bilateral supratentorial and infratentorial neuroparenchyma. Test for HIV-1 was reactive. Toxoplasma serology revealed raised IgG antibody levels. Based on the MRI features and positive toxoplasma serology a diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was made. He was treated with trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole and pyrimethamine/ Sulfadoxine for 3 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, repeat MRI of brain was done which showed significant resolution of the lesions. Conclusion: We are presenting this case to highlight the fact that cerebral toxoplasmosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of multiple neuroparenchymal lesions in young individuals who present with neurological deficits.
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