Multispectral Characteristics of Glacier Surface Facies (Chandra-Bhaga Basin, Himalaya, and Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard) through Investigations of Pixel and Object-Based Mapping Using Variable Processing Routines

Shridhar D. Jawak, Sagar F. Wankhede, Alvarinho J. Luis, Keshava Balakrishna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Fundamental image processing methods, such as atmospheric corrections and pansharpening, influence the signal of the pixel. This morphs the spectral signature of target features causing a change in both the final spectra and the way different mapping methods may assign thematic classes. In the current study, we aim to identify the variations induced by popular image processing methods in the spectral reflectance and final thematic maps of facies. To this end, we have tested three different atmospheric corrections: (a) Quick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC), (b) Dark Object Subtraction (DOS), and (c) Fast Line-of-Sight Atmospheric Analysis of Hypercubes (FLAASH), and two pansharpening methods: (a) Hyperspherical Color Sharpening (HCS) and (b) Gram–Schmidt (GS). WorldView-2 and WorldView-3 satellite images over Chandra-Bhaga Basin, Himalaya, and Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard are tested via spectral subsets in traditional (BGRN1), unconventional (CYRN2), visible to near-infrared (VNIR), and the complete available spectrum (VNIR_SWIR). Thematic mapping was comparatively performed using 12 pixel-based (PBIA) algorithms and 3 object-based (GEOBIA) rule sets. Thus, we test the impact of varying image processing routines, effectiveness of specific spectral bands, utility of PBIA, and versatility of GEOBIA for mapping facies. Our findings suggest that the image processing routines exert an extreme impact on the end spectral reflectance. DOS delivers the most reliable performance (overall accuracy = 0.64) averaged across all processing schemes. GEOBIA delivers much higher accuracy when the QUAC correction is employed and if the image is enhanced by GS pansharpening (overall accuracy = 0.79). SWIR bands have not enhanced the classification results and VNIR band combination yields superior performance (overall accuracy = 0.59). The maximum likelihood classifier (PBIA) delivers consistent and reliable performance (overall accuracy = 0.61) across all processing schemes and can be used after DOS correction without pansharpening, as it deteriorates spectral information. GEOBIA appears to be robust against modulations in atmospheric corrections but is enhanced by pansharpening. When utilizing GEOBIA, we find that a combination of spatial and spectral object features (rule set 3) delivers the best performance (overall accuracy = 0.86), rather than relying only on spectral (rule set 1) or spatial (rule set 2) object features. The multiresolution segmentation parameters used here may be transferable to other very high resolution (VHR) VNIR mapping of facies as it yielded consistent objects across all processing schemes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6311
JournalRemote Sensing
Volume14
Issue number24
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)

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