The current review focuses towards the advancements made in the past decade in the field of nanotechnology for the early Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis. This review includes the application of nanomaterials and nanosensors for the early detection of the main AD biomarkers (amyloid beta, phosphorylated tau, apolipoprotein E4 allele or APOE4, microRNAs, cholesterol, hydrogen peroxide etc) in biological fluids, to detect the biomarkers at a very low concentration ranging in pico, femto and even atto molar concentrations. The field of drug development has always aimed and is constantly working on developing disease modifying drugs, but these drugs will only succeed when given in the early disease stages. Thus, developing efficient diagnostic tools is of vital importance. Various nanomaterials such as liposomes; dendrimers; polymeric nanoparticles; coordination polymers; inorganic nanoparticles such as silica, manganese oxide, zinc oxide, iron oxide, super paramagnetic iron oxides; quantum dots, silver nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, and carbon based nanostructures (carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, nanofibres, nanodiamonds, carbon dots); Up-conversion nanoparticles; 2D nanomaterials; and radioactive nanoprobes have been used in constructing and improving efficiency of nano-sensors for AD biosensing at an early stage of diagnosis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering