Rapid proliferation, high stemness potential, high invasiveness and apoptotic evasion are the distinctive hallmarks of glioma malignancy. The dysregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is the key factor regulating glioma malignancy. Wnt antagonist, secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4), which has a prominent pro-apoptotic role in glioma stem cells, has two functional domains, the netrin-like domain (NLD), and cysteine-rich domain (CRD) both of which contribute to apoptotic properties of the whole protein. However, there are no reports elucidating the specific effects of individual domains of sFRP4 in inhibiting the invasive properties of glioma. This study explores the efficacy of the domains of sFRP4 in inhibiting the key hallmarks of glioblastoma such as invasion, metastasis, and stemness. We overexpressed sFRP4 and its domains in the glioblastoma cell line, U87MG cells and observed that both CRD and NLD domains played prominent roles in attenuating cancer stem cell properties. Significantly, we could demonstrate for the first time that both NLD and CRD domains negatively impacted the key driver of metastasis and migration, the matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Mechanistically, compared to CRD, NLD domain suppressed MMP-2 mediated invasion more effectively in glioma cells as observed in matrigel invasion assay and a function-blocking antibody assay. Fluorescent matrix degradation assay further revealed that NLD reduces matrix degradation. NLD also significantly disrupted fibronectin assembly and decreased cell adhesion in another glioma cell line LN229. In conclusion, the NLD peptide of sFRP4 could be a potent short peptide therapeutic candidate for targeting MMP-2-mediated invasion in the highly malignant glioblastoma multiforme.
|Journal||Experimental Cell Research|
|Publication status||Published - 08-11-2021|