Occurrence and fate of parabens and their metabolites in five sewage treatment plants in India

Rajendiran Karthikraj, Anuji K. Vasu, Keshava Balakrishna, Ravindra K. Sinha, Kurunthachalam Kannan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Parabens (p-hydroxy benzoic acid esters) are antimicrobial agents, used widely as preservatives in personal care products (PCPs), pharmaceuticals, foods, and beverages. PCPs that contain parabens are a major source of these chemicals in sewage treatment plants (STPs). Very few studies have demonstrated the occurrence of parabens in wastewater. In this study, the occurrence and fate of six parabens, methyl-(MeP), ethyl-(EtP), propyl-(PrP), butyl-(BuP), hepty-(HpP) and benzyl-(BzP) parabens, and five of their metabolites (4-HB, 3,4-DHB, OH-MeP, OH-EtP and BA) were studied in five STPs in India. The concentrations of parent parabens (∑6parent parabens) in five STPs ranged between 131 and 920 ng/L in influent; 16 and 67 ng/L in effluent; and 104 and 1090 ng/g, dry weight, in sludge samples. The sum concentrations of five paraben metabolites (∑5paraben metabolites) in five STPs ranged between 4110 and 34,600 ng/L in influent; 2560 and 3800 ng/L in effluent; and 1220 and 35,900 ng/g, dry weight, in sludge samples. These values were higher than those reported for many industrialized countries. We calculated the mass loadings, removal efficiencies, and environmental emissions of parabens based on the measured concentrations in influents, effluents, and sludge. The mean removal efficiencies of parent parabens and their metabolites ranged from 80% to 100% and 28% to 76%, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)592-598
Number of pages7
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume593-594
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-09-2017

Fingerprint

Parabens
Sewage treatment plants
Metabolites
sewage treatment
metabolite
sludge
effluent
preservative
Effluents
ester
drug
wastewater
food
acid
Antimicrobial agents
Benzoic Acid
Beverages
Benzoic acid
Sewage sludge
Anti-Infective Agents

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

Cite this

Karthikraj, Rajendiran ; Vasu, Anuji K. ; Balakrishna, Keshava ; Sinha, Ravindra K. ; Kannan, Kurunthachalam. / Occurrence and fate of parabens and their metabolites in five sewage treatment plants in India. In: Science of the Total Environment. 2017 ; Vol. 593-594. pp. 592-598.
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Occurrence and fate of parabens and their metabolites in five sewage treatment plants in India. / Karthikraj, Rajendiran; Vasu, Anuji K.; Balakrishna, Keshava; Sinha, Ravindra K.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 593-594, 01.09.2017, p. 592-598.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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