Osteoporosis, defined by BMD at the hip or lumbar spine that is less than or equal to 2.5 standard deviations below the mean BMD of a young-adult reference population, is the most common bone disease in humans affecting both sexes and all races. It’s a silent killer affecting the quality of life due to fractures and postural changes. In osteoporosis there is an imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption in favor of latter. Preventive measures and treatments are available to combat this evil. Counseling is the integral part of prevention as well as treatment of osteoporosis. Preventive strategy includes life style changes, exercise, intake of calcium and vitamin D, avoiding alcohol, smoking and excessive intake of salt. Estrogen therapy/estrogen+progesterone therapy (ET/EPT) is no longer recommended as a first-line therapy for the prevention of osteoporosis. They may be used in the therapy for osteoporosis in women under 60. Diagnosis and classification are made by assessment of BMD using DEXA or ultrasound and laboratory investigations. Management includes estimation of 10-year fracture risk using FRAX, life style and diet modification and pharmacological therapy. The drugs used in osteoporosis may be those that inhibit bone resorption—bisphosphonates, denosumab, calcitonin, SERMs, estrogen and progesterone—or that stimulate bone formation—PTH, Teriparatide. Combination therapies are not recommended as they do not have proven additional BMD/fracture benefits. No therapy should be indefinite in duration. There are no uniform recommendations to all patients. Duration decisions need to be individualized. While on treatment monitoring should be done with BMD assessment by DEXA/ultrasound and bone turnover markers.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Obstetrics and Gynaecology