Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system caused due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons. It is classified under movement disorder as patients with PD present with tremor, rigidity, postural changes, and a decrease in spontaneous movements. Comorbidities including anxiety, depression, fatigue, and sleep disorders are observed prior to the diagnosis of PD. Gene mutations, exposure to toxic substances, and aging are considered as the causative factors of PD even though its genesis is unknown. This paper reviews PD etiologies, progression, and in particular measurable indicators of PD such as neuroimaging and electrophysiology modalities. In addition to gene therapy, neuroprotective, pharmacological, and neural transplantation treatments, researchers are actively aiming at identifying biological markers of PD with the goal of early diagnosis. Neuroimaging modalities used together with advanced machine learning techniques offer a promising path for the early detection and intervention in PD patients.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computer Science Applications
- Health Informatics