Patient medication counseling in chronic diseases - pharmacists role

B. Jimmy, J. Jose, P.G.M. Rao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This narrative review aims to appraise the significance of pharmacist's role in counseling patients on long-term medication for chronic illness. A thorough search of literature was carried out and critically evaluated to identify the complexities of drug therapy in chronically ill patients and the approaches that a pharmacist can adopt in improving the rate of medication adherence to improve health outcome in this group of patients. Management of patients with chronic illness, unlike acute illness, demand fundamentally different approaches to ensure medication adherence. Pharmacists are logical health care professionals to address the problems of non-adherence because of their unique training and accessibility. Pharmacist should encourage the patients to take an active role in planning, implementing and monitoring their treatment. Pharmacist provided patient medication counseling is enormously essential for effective therapy in patients with chronic illness. Chronically ill patients have various reasons for not adhering with their medication regimen. Pharmacist during their interactions with chronically ill patients has to consider the unique factors which influence the degree of medication adherence in them and has to employ approaches which will address the same and result in successful management of chronic disease. Pharmacists have an active role to play in improving the rate of adherence in this group of patients and they can effectively contribute along with the other members of the health care team to improve patient outcomes in patients on long term therapy. © APTI.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)301-309
Number of pages9
JournalIndian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Volume42
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes

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Pharmacists
Counseling
Chronic Disease
Medication Adherence
Patient Care Team
Therapeutics
Delivery of Health Care
Drug Therapy

Cite this

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title = "Patient medication counseling in chronic diseases - pharmacists role",
abstract = "This narrative review aims to appraise the significance of pharmacist's role in counseling patients on long-term medication for chronic illness. A thorough search of literature was carried out and critically evaluated to identify the complexities of drug therapy in chronically ill patients and the approaches that a pharmacist can adopt in improving the rate of medication adherence to improve health outcome in this group of patients. Management of patients with chronic illness, unlike acute illness, demand fundamentally different approaches to ensure medication adherence. Pharmacists are logical health care professionals to address the problems of non-adherence because of their unique training and accessibility. Pharmacist should encourage the patients to take an active role in planning, implementing and monitoring their treatment. Pharmacist provided patient medication counseling is enormously essential for effective therapy in patients with chronic illness. Chronically ill patients have various reasons for not adhering with their medication regimen. Pharmacist during their interactions with chronically ill patients has to consider the unique factors which influence the degree of medication adherence in them and has to employ approaches which will address the same and result in successful management of chronic disease. Pharmacists have an active role to play in improving the rate of adherence in this group of patients and they can effectively contribute along with the other members of the health care team to improve patient outcomes in patients on long term therapy. {\circledC} APTI.",
author = "B. Jimmy and J. Jose and P.G.M. Rao",
note = "Export Date: 10 November 2017 Correspondence Address: Jose, J.; Department of Pharmacy Practice, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka 576 104, India; email: jimmy_jose2001@yahoo.com References: McDonnell, P.J., Jacobs, M.R., Hospital admissions resulting from preventable adverse drug reactions (2002) Ann Pharmacother, 36, pp. 1331-1336; Schiff, G.D., Fung, S., Speroff, T., McNutt, R.A., Decompensated heart failure: Symptoms, patterns of onset, and contributing factors (2003) Amer J Med, 114, pp. 625-630; Senst, B.L., Achusim, L.E., Genest, R.P., Cosentino, L.A., Ford, C.C., Little, J.A., Raybon, S.J., Bates, D.W., Practical approach to determining costs and frequency of adverse drug events in a health care network (2001) Am J Health-Syst Ph, 58, pp. 1126-1132; Rodgers, P.T., Ruffin, D.M., Medication nonadherence: Part II-A pilot study in patients with congestive heart failure (1998) Manag Care Interface, 11, pp. 67-69. , 75; Ringer, J., Keys, P.J., Wagenknecht, L.D., Miller, D.E., Slaughter, R.L., The Michigan Pharmacists Association Patient Persistency Project (2001) Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy, 7, pp. 50-55; Lewis, R.K., Lasack, N.L., Lambert, B.L., Connor, S.E., Patient Counseling-a focus on maintenance therapy (1997) Am J Health-Syst Ph, 54, pp. 2084-2098; Osterberg, L., Blaschke, T., Adherence to Medication (2005) New Eng J Med, 353, pp. 487-497; Ramesh, A., Patient Counselling (2004) A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacy Practice, pp. 43-53. , In: Parthasarathi G, Hansen KN, Nahata Mc, eds., 1 st ed. Orient Longman; Col, N., Fanale, J.E., Kronholm, P., The role of medication noncompliance and adverse drug reactions in hospitalizations of the Elderly (1990) Arch Intern Med, 150, pp. 841-845; Wagner, E.H., Chronic disease management: What will take it to improve care for chronic illness? (1998) Eff Clin Pract, 1, pp. 2-4; Khalil, S.A., Elzubier, A.G., Drug compliance among hypertensive patients in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia (1997) J Hypertens, 15, pp. 561-565; Elzubier, A.G., Husain, A.A., Suleiman, I.A., Hamid, Z.A., Drug compliance among hypertensive patients in Kassala, eastern Sudan (2000) Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 6, pp. 100-105; Waeber, B., Burnier, M., Brunner, H.R., How to improve adherence with prescribed treatment in hypertensive patients? (2000) J Cardiovasc Pharm, 35 (SUPPL. 3), pp. S23-S26; Anderson, B.J., Vangsness, L., Connell, A., Butler, D., Goebel-Fabbri, A., Laffel, L.M., Family conflict, adherence, and glycaemic control in youth with short duration Type I diabetes (2002) Diabetic Med, 19, pp. 635-642; Adherence to log term therapies (2003) Evidence For Action, , http://www.who.int/chronic_conditions/adherencereport/en/, World Health Organization; Gattis, W.A., Hasselblad, V., Whellan, D.J., O'Connor, C.M., Reduction in heart failure events by the addition of a clinical pharmacist to the heart failure management team (1999) Arch Intern Med, 159, pp. 1939-1945; Murray, E., Burns, J., Tai, S., Lai, R., Nazareth, I., Interactive Health Communication Applications for people with chronic disease (2005) The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, , Art No.: CD 004274, 10.1002/14651858, CD004274. pub 4; (1982), Dictionary of health services management, 2nd ed, Owing Mills, MD, National Health publishing; Murray, C.J., Lopez, A.D., (1996) The Global Burden of Disease, , Boston: Harvard School of Public Health; Wagner, E.H., Groves, T., Care for chronic diseases (2002) Brit Med J, 325, pp. 913-914; Holman, H., Lorig, K., Patients as partners in managing chronic disease (2000) Partnership is A Prerequisite For Effective and Efficient Health Care. Brit Med. J, 320, pp. 526-527; Corbin, J.M., Strauss, A., Unending work and care: Managing chronic illness at home. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1988. The role of patient care teams in chronic disease management (2000) Brit Med J, 320, pp. 569-572. , Wagner EH; Jackevicius, C.A., Mamdani, M., Tu, J.V., Adherence with statin therapy in elderly patients with and without acute coronary syndromes (2002) J Amer Med, 288, pp. 462-467; Benner, J.S., Glynn, R.J., Mogun, H., Neumann, P.J., Weinstein, M.C., Avorn, J., Long-term persistence in use of statin therapy in elderly patients (2002) J Amer Med, 288, pp. 455-461; Haynes, R.B., McDonald, H.P., Garg, A.X., Helping patients follow prescribed treatment: Clinical applications (2002) J Amer Med, 288, pp. 2880-2883; Hedstrand, H., Aberg, H., Treatment of hypertension in middle-aged men. A feasibility study in a community (1976) Acta Med Scand, 199, pp. 281-288; Claxton, A.J., Cramer, J., Pierce, C., A systematic review of the associations between dose regimens and medication compliance (2001) Clin Ther, 23, pp. 1296-1310; van der Sande, M.A., Milligan, P.J., Nyan, O.A., Rowley, J.T., Banya, W.A., Ceesay, S.M., Dolmans, W.M., Walraven, G.E., Blood pressure patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in rural and urban Gambian communities (2000) J Hum Hypertens, 14, pp. 489-496; Okuno, J., Yanagi, H., Tomura, S., Is cognitive impairment a risk factor for poor compliance among Japanese elderly in the community? (2001) Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 57, pp. 589-594; Lacro, J.P., Dunn, L.B., Dolder, C.R., Leckband, S.G., Jeste, D.V., Prevalence of and risk factors formedication nonadherence in patients with schizophrenia: A comprehensive review of recent literature (2002) J Clin Psychiat, 63, pp. 892-909; Balkrishnan, R., Predictors of medication adherence in the elderly (1998) Clin Ther, 20, pp. 764-771; Ellis, J.J., Erickson, S.R., Stevenson, J.G., Bernstein, S.J., Stiles, R.A., Fendrick, A.M., Suboptimal stain adherence and discontinuation in primary and secondary prevention populations (2004) J Gen Intern Med, 19, pp. 638-645; Stilley, C.S., Sereika, S., Muldoon, M.F., Ryan, C.M., Dunbar-Jacob, J., Physiological and cognitive function: Predictors of adherence with cholesterol lowering treatment (2004) Ann Behav Med, 27, pp. 117-124; Ammassari, A., Trotta, M.P., Murri, R., Castelli, F., Narciso, P., Noto, P., Vecchiet, J., Antinori, A., Correlates and predictors of adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy: Overview of published literature (2002) J Acq Immun Def Synd, 31 (SUPPL. 3), pp. S123-S127; Coutts, J.A., Gibson, N.A., Paton, J.Y., Measuring compliance with inhaled medication in asthma (1992) Arch Dis Child, 67, pp. 332-333; Cooper, J.K., Love, D.W., Rafoul, P.R., Intentional prescription nonadherence (noncompliance) by the elderly (1982) J Am Geriatr Soc, 30, pp. 329-333; German, P.S., Klein, L.E., McPhee, S.J., Smith, C.R., Knowledge of and compliance with drug regimens in the elderly (1982) J Am Geriatr Soc, 30, pp. 568-571; Wagner, E.H., Austrin, B.T., von Kroff, M., Organizing care for patients with chronic illness (1996) Milbank Q, 74, pp. 511-544; Weingarten, S.R., Henning, J.M., Badamgarav, E., Knight, K., Hasselblad, V., Gano Jr., A., Ofman, J.J., Interventions used in disease management programmes for patients with chronic illness-which ones work? Meta-analysis of published reports (2002) Brit Med J, 325, pp. 25-28; Haynes, R.B., Montague, P., Oliver, T., McKibbon, K.A., Brouwers, M.C., Kanani, R., Interventions for helping people follow prescriptions for medicines (2000) Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (2), pp. CD000011; Hussar, D.A., Patient compliance (2000) Remington Pharmaceutical Sciences, , In: Alfonso RG, Ara H Der M, Glen R Hanson, Thomas M, Nicholas GP, Roger LS, Joseph BS, H Steve White, eds, 20th ed. Williams and Wilkins Pub; Hanlon, J.T., Weinberger, M., Samsa, G.P., Schmader, K.E., Uttech, K.M., Lewis, I.K., Cowper, P.A., Feussner, J.R., A randomized, controlled trial of a clinical pharmacist intervention to improve inappropriate prescribing in elderly outpatients with polypharmacy (1996) Amer J Med, 100, pp. 428-437; Leape, L.L., Cullen, D.J., Clapp, M.D., Burdick, E., Demonaco, H.J., Erickson, J.I., Bates, D.W., Pharmacist participation on physician rounds and adverse drug events in the intensive care unit (1999) J Amer Med, 21, pp. 267-270; Bogden, P.E., Abbott, R.D., Williamson, P., Onopa, J.K., Koontz, L.M., Comparing standard care with a physician and pharmacist team approach for uncontrolled hypertension (1998) J Gen Intern Med, 13, pp. 740-745; Sherbourne, C.D., Hays, R.D., Ordway, L., Dimatteo, M.R., Kravitz, R.L., Antecedents of adherence to medical recommendations: Results from the Medical Outcomes Study (1992) J Behav Med, 15, pp. 447-468; Garner, M.E., Herrier, R.N., Meldrum, H., Patient communication in clinical pharmacy practice (2000) Textbook of Therapeutics-Drug and Disease Management, , In: Eric T Herfindal, Dick R Gourley eds, 7th edn. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Pub; Beckles, G.L., Engelgau, M.M., Narayan, K.M., Herman, W.H., Aubert, R.E., Williamson, D.F., Population based assessment of the level of care among adults with diabetes in the US (1998) Diabetes Care, 21, pp. 1432-1438; Liebl, A., Goertz, A., Spannheimer, A., Reitberger, U., Wieseler, B., Stammer, H., Complications, comorbidity and blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Germany - results from the CDDE-2 Study (2002) Exp Clin Endocr Diab, 110, pp. 10-16; Clifford, R.M., Davis, W.A., Batty, K.T., Davis, T.M., Effect of a pharmaceutical care program on vascular risk factors in Type 2 Diabetes-The Fremantle Diabetes Study (2005) Diabetes Care, 28, pp. 771-776; Hodgson, T.A., Cai, L., Medical care expenditures for hypertension, its complications, and its comorbidites (2001) Med Care, 39, pp. 599-615; Berenson, G.S., Srinivasan, S.R., Bao, W., Newman, W.P., Tracy, R.E., Wattigney, W.H., Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and artherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study (1998) New Eng J Med, 338, pp. 1650-1656; Burt, V.L., Whelton, P., Roccella, E.L., Brown, C., Cutler, J.A., Higgins, M., Horan, M.J., Labarthe, D., Blood pressure measurement in the US adult population (1995) Results From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1991; Hypertension, 25, pp. 305-313; Hershey, J.C., Morton, B.G., Davis, J.B., Reichgott, M.J., Patient compliance with antihypertensive medication (1980) Am J Public Health, 70 (10), pp. 1081-1089; Luscher, T.F., Vetter, H., Siegenthaler, W., Vetter, W., Compliance in hypertension: Facts and concepts (1985) J Hypertens, 3, pp. 3-9",
year = "2008",
language = "English",
volume = "42",
pages = "301--309",
journal = "Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research",
issn = "0019-5464",
publisher = "Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India",
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}

Patient medication counseling in chronic diseases - pharmacists role. / Jimmy, B.; Jose, J.; Rao, P.G.M.

In: Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Vol. 42, No. 3, 2008, p. 301-309.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Patient medication counseling in chronic diseases - pharmacists role

AU - Jimmy, B.

AU - Jose, J.

AU - Rao, P.G.M.

N1 - Export Date: 10 November 2017 Correspondence Address: Jose, J.; Department of Pharmacy Practice, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka 576 104, India; email: jimmy_jose2001@yahoo.com References: McDonnell, P.J., Jacobs, M.R., Hospital admissions resulting from preventable adverse drug reactions (2002) Ann Pharmacother, 36, pp. 1331-1336; Schiff, G.D., Fung, S., Speroff, T., McNutt, R.A., Decompensated heart failure: Symptoms, patterns of onset, and contributing factors (2003) Amer J Med, 114, pp. 625-630; Senst, B.L., Achusim, L.E., Genest, R.P., Cosentino, L.A., Ford, C.C., Little, J.A., Raybon, S.J., Bates, D.W., Practical approach to determining costs and frequency of adverse drug events in a health care network (2001) Am J Health-Syst Ph, 58, pp. 1126-1132; Rodgers, P.T., Ruffin, D.M., Medication nonadherence: Part II-A pilot study in patients with congestive heart failure (1998) Manag Care Interface, 11, pp. 67-69. , 75; Ringer, J., Keys, P.J., Wagenknecht, L.D., Miller, D.E., Slaughter, R.L., The Michigan Pharmacists Association Patient Persistency Project (2001) Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy, 7, pp. 50-55; Lewis, R.K., Lasack, N.L., Lambert, B.L., Connor, S.E., Patient Counseling-a focus on maintenance therapy (1997) Am J Health-Syst Ph, 54, pp. 2084-2098; Osterberg, L., Blaschke, T., Adherence to Medication (2005) New Eng J Med, 353, pp. 487-497; Ramesh, A., Patient Counselling (2004) A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacy Practice, pp. 43-53. , In: Parthasarathi G, Hansen KN, Nahata Mc, eds., 1 st ed. Orient Longman; Col, N., Fanale, J.E., Kronholm, P., The role of medication noncompliance and adverse drug reactions in hospitalizations of the Elderly (1990) Arch Intern Med, 150, pp. 841-845; Wagner, E.H., Chronic disease management: What will take it to improve care for chronic illness? (1998) Eff Clin Pract, 1, pp. 2-4; Khalil, S.A., Elzubier, A.G., Drug compliance among hypertensive patients in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia (1997) J Hypertens, 15, pp. 561-565; Elzubier, A.G., Husain, A.A., Suleiman, I.A., Hamid, Z.A., Drug compliance among hypertensive patients in Kassala, eastern Sudan (2000) Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 6, pp. 100-105; Waeber, B., Burnier, M., Brunner, H.R., How to improve adherence with prescribed treatment in hypertensive patients? (2000) J Cardiovasc Pharm, 35 (SUPPL. 3), pp. S23-S26; Anderson, B.J., Vangsness, L., Connell, A., Butler, D., Goebel-Fabbri, A., Laffel, L.M., Family conflict, adherence, and glycaemic control in youth with short duration Type I diabetes (2002) Diabetic Med, 19, pp. 635-642; Adherence to log term therapies (2003) Evidence For Action, , http://www.who.int/chronic_conditions/adherencereport/en/, World Health Organization; Gattis, W.A., Hasselblad, V., Whellan, D.J., O'Connor, C.M., Reduction in heart failure events by the addition of a clinical pharmacist to the heart failure management team (1999) Arch Intern Med, 159, pp. 1939-1945; Murray, E., Burns, J., Tai, S., Lai, R., Nazareth, I., Interactive Health Communication Applications for people with chronic disease (2005) The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, , Art No.: CD 004274, 10.1002/14651858, CD004274. pub 4; (1982), Dictionary of health services management, 2nd ed, Owing Mills, MD, National Health publishing; Murray, C.J., Lopez, A.D., (1996) The Global Burden of Disease, , Boston: Harvard School of Public Health; Wagner, E.H., Groves, T., Care for chronic diseases (2002) Brit Med J, 325, pp. 913-914; Holman, H., Lorig, K., Patients as partners in managing chronic disease (2000) Partnership is A Prerequisite For Effective and Efficient Health Care. Brit Med. J, 320, pp. 526-527; Corbin, J.M., Strauss, A., Unending work and care: Managing chronic illness at home. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1988. The role of patient care teams in chronic disease management (2000) Brit Med J, 320, pp. 569-572. , Wagner EH; Jackevicius, C.A., Mamdani, M., Tu, J.V., Adherence with statin therapy in elderly patients with and without acute coronary syndromes (2002) J Amer Med, 288, pp. 462-467; Benner, J.S., Glynn, R.J., Mogun, H., Neumann, P.J., Weinstein, M.C., Avorn, J., Long-term persistence in use of statin therapy in elderly patients (2002) J Amer Med, 288, pp. 455-461; Haynes, R.B., McDonald, H.P., Garg, A.X., Helping patients follow prescribed treatment: Clinical applications (2002) J Amer Med, 288, pp. 2880-2883; Hedstrand, H., Aberg, H., Treatment of hypertension in middle-aged men. A feasibility study in a community (1976) Acta Med Scand, 199, pp. 281-288; Claxton, A.J., Cramer, J., Pierce, C., A systematic review of the associations between dose regimens and medication compliance (2001) Clin Ther, 23, pp. 1296-1310; van der Sande, M.A., Milligan, P.J., Nyan, O.A., Rowley, J.T., Banya, W.A., Ceesay, S.M., Dolmans, W.M., Walraven, G.E., Blood pressure patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in rural and urban Gambian communities (2000) J Hum Hypertens, 14, pp. 489-496; Okuno, J., Yanagi, H., Tomura, S., Is cognitive impairment a risk factor for poor compliance among Japanese elderly in the community? (2001) Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 57, pp. 589-594; Lacro, J.P., Dunn, L.B., Dolder, C.R., Leckband, S.G., Jeste, D.V., Prevalence of and risk factors formedication nonadherence in patients with schizophrenia: A comprehensive review of recent literature (2002) J Clin Psychiat, 63, pp. 892-909; Balkrishnan, R., Predictors of medication adherence in the elderly (1998) Clin Ther, 20, pp. 764-771; Ellis, J.J., Erickson, S.R., Stevenson, J.G., Bernstein, S.J., Stiles, R.A., Fendrick, A.M., Suboptimal stain adherence and discontinuation in primary and secondary prevention populations (2004) J Gen Intern Med, 19, pp. 638-645; Stilley, C.S., Sereika, S., Muldoon, M.F., Ryan, C.M., Dunbar-Jacob, J., Physiological and cognitive function: Predictors of adherence with cholesterol lowering treatment (2004) Ann Behav Med, 27, pp. 117-124; Ammassari, A., Trotta, M.P., Murri, R., Castelli, F., Narciso, P., Noto, P., Vecchiet, J., Antinori, A., Correlates and predictors of adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy: Overview of published literature (2002) J Acq Immun Def Synd, 31 (SUPPL. 3), pp. S123-S127; Coutts, J.A., Gibson, N.A., Paton, J.Y., Measuring compliance with inhaled medication in asthma (1992) Arch Dis Child, 67, pp. 332-333; Cooper, J.K., Love, D.W., Rafoul, P.R., Intentional prescription nonadherence (noncompliance) by the elderly (1982) J Am Geriatr Soc, 30, pp. 329-333; German, P.S., Klein, L.E., McPhee, S.J., Smith, C.R., Knowledge of and compliance with drug regimens in the elderly (1982) J Am Geriatr Soc, 30, pp. 568-571; Wagner, E.H., Austrin, B.T., von Kroff, M., Organizing care for patients with chronic illness (1996) Milbank Q, 74, pp. 511-544; Weingarten, S.R., Henning, J.M., Badamgarav, E., Knight, K., Hasselblad, V., Gano Jr., A., Ofman, J.J., Interventions used in disease management programmes for patients with chronic illness-which ones work? Meta-analysis of published reports (2002) Brit Med J, 325, pp. 25-28; Haynes, R.B., Montague, P., Oliver, T., McKibbon, K.A., Brouwers, M.C., Kanani, R., Interventions for helping people follow prescriptions for medicines (2000) Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (2), pp. CD000011; Hussar, D.A., Patient compliance (2000) Remington Pharmaceutical Sciences, , In: Alfonso RG, Ara H Der M, Glen R Hanson, Thomas M, Nicholas GP, Roger LS, Joseph BS, H Steve White, eds, 20th ed. Williams and Wilkins Pub; Hanlon, J.T., Weinberger, M., Samsa, G.P., Schmader, K.E., Uttech, K.M., Lewis, I.K., Cowper, P.A., Feussner, J.R., A randomized, controlled trial of a clinical pharmacist intervention to improve inappropriate prescribing in elderly outpatients with polypharmacy (1996) Amer J Med, 100, pp. 428-437; Leape, L.L., Cullen, D.J., Clapp, M.D., Burdick, E., Demonaco, H.J., Erickson, J.I., Bates, D.W., Pharmacist participation on physician rounds and adverse drug events in the intensive care unit (1999) J Amer Med, 21, pp. 267-270; Bogden, P.E., Abbott, R.D., Williamson, P., Onopa, J.K., Koontz, L.M., Comparing standard care with a physician and pharmacist team approach for uncontrolled hypertension (1998) J Gen Intern Med, 13, pp. 740-745; Sherbourne, C.D., Hays, R.D., Ordway, L., Dimatteo, M.R., Kravitz, R.L., Antecedents of adherence to medical recommendations: Results from the Medical Outcomes Study (1992) J Behav Med, 15, pp. 447-468; Garner, M.E., Herrier, R.N., Meldrum, H., Patient communication in clinical pharmacy practice (2000) Textbook of Therapeutics-Drug and Disease Management, , In: Eric T Herfindal, Dick R Gourley eds, 7th edn. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Pub; Beckles, G.L., Engelgau, M.M., Narayan, K.M., Herman, W.H., Aubert, R.E., Williamson, D.F., Population based assessment of the level of care among adults with diabetes in the US (1998) Diabetes Care, 21, pp. 1432-1438; Liebl, A., Goertz, A., Spannheimer, A., Reitberger, U., Wieseler, B., Stammer, H., Complications, comorbidity and blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Germany - results from the CDDE-2 Study (2002) Exp Clin Endocr Diab, 110, pp. 10-16; Clifford, R.M., Davis, W.A., Batty, K.T., Davis, T.M., Effect of a pharmaceutical care program on vascular risk factors in Type 2 Diabetes-The Fremantle Diabetes Study (2005) Diabetes Care, 28, pp. 771-776; Hodgson, T.A., Cai, L., Medical care expenditures for hypertension, its complications, and its comorbidites (2001) Med Care, 39, pp. 599-615; Berenson, G.S., Srinivasan, S.R., Bao, W., Newman, W.P., Tracy, R.E., Wattigney, W.H., Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and artherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study (1998) New Eng J Med, 338, pp. 1650-1656; Burt, V.L., Whelton, P., Roccella, E.L., Brown, C., Cutler, J.A., Higgins, M., Horan, M.J., Labarthe, D., Blood pressure measurement in the US adult population (1995) Results From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1991; Hypertension, 25, pp. 305-313; Hershey, J.C., Morton, B.G., Davis, J.B., Reichgott, M.J., Patient compliance with antihypertensive medication (1980) Am J Public Health, 70 (10), pp. 1081-1089; Luscher, T.F., Vetter, H., Siegenthaler, W., Vetter, W., Compliance in hypertension: Facts and concepts (1985) J Hypertens, 3, pp. 3-9

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - This narrative review aims to appraise the significance of pharmacist's role in counseling patients on long-term medication for chronic illness. A thorough search of literature was carried out and critically evaluated to identify the complexities of drug therapy in chronically ill patients and the approaches that a pharmacist can adopt in improving the rate of medication adherence to improve health outcome in this group of patients. Management of patients with chronic illness, unlike acute illness, demand fundamentally different approaches to ensure medication adherence. Pharmacists are logical health care professionals to address the problems of non-adherence because of their unique training and accessibility. Pharmacist should encourage the patients to take an active role in planning, implementing and monitoring their treatment. Pharmacist provided patient medication counseling is enormously essential for effective therapy in patients with chronic illness. Chronically ill patients have various reasons for not adhering with their medication regimen. Pharmacist during their interactions with chronically ill patients has to consider the unique factors which influence the degree of medication adherence in them and has to employ approaches which will address the same and result in successful management of chronic disease. Pharmacists have an active role to play in improving the rate of adherence in this group of patients and they can effectively contribute along with the other members of the health care team to improve patient outcomes in patients on long term therapy. © APTI.

AB - This narrative review aims to appraise the significance of pharmacist's role in counseling patients on long-term medication for chronic illness. A thorough search of literature was carried out and critically evaluated to identify the complexities of drug therapy in chronically ill patients and the approaches that a pharmacist can adopt in improving the rate of medication adherence to improve health outcome in this group of patients. Management of patients with chronic illness, unlike acute illness, demand fundamentally different approaches to ensure medication adherence. Pharmacists are logical health care professionals to address the problems of non-adherence because of their unique training and accessibility. Pharmacist should encourage the patients to take an active role in planning, implementing and monitoring their treatment. Pharmacist provided patient medication counseling is enormously essential for effective therapy in patients with chronic illness. Chronically ill patients have various reasons for not adhering with their medication regimen. Pharmacist during their interactions with chronically ill patients has to consider the unique factors which influence the degree of medication adherence in them and has to employ approaches which will address the same and result in successful management of chronic disease. Pharmacists have an active role to play in improving the rate of adherence in this group of patients and they can effectively contribute along with the other members of the health care team to improve patient outcomes in patients on long term therapy. © APTI.

M3 - Article

VL - 42

SP - 301

EP - 309

JO - Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research

JF - Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research

SN - 0019-5464

IS - 3

ER -