Hanging is a common mode of suicide while ligature strangulation is a common way of homicide. Ligature marks (patterned abrasion caused by ligature material) can be of great significance to the forensic pathologist in determining the cause and manner of death. Ligature material usually produces a prominent mark over the bight area, which is opposite to the knot and an inverted 'V' pattern at the site of the knot. Apart from ligature mark, sometimes findings such as rope burns & nail marks may be seen around the ligature mark and can be termed as 'periligature injuries'. Nail marks over the neck are usually suggestive of throttling. But they can also be self inflicted by the victim while trying to extricate himself/herself from the strangling grip of hanging or ligature strangulation. Such injuries, when present may mislead the forensic pathologist in drawing conclusion as to whether it is due to hanging or manual strangulation. Rope burn is caused by friction of rope against skin leading to blister formation. Thus it is an antemortem feature. We present two cases of hanging with periligature injuries.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Psychiatry and Mental health