Polarization microscopy, a powerful optical tool to study anisotropic properties of biomolecules, provides better microstructural information of a sample as compared with conventional optical microscopic techniques. The measurement and analysis of polarization states of light can be performed using both Jones matrix as well as Stokes algebra. Further, the details of optical properties of specimen are characterized by Mueller matrix. However, the application of Jones calculus is limited to perfectly polarized light, but Stokes-Mueller polarimetry is emerging as a promising tool for tissue imaging due to its application irrespective of polarization state of the light. In this review article, we explain the development of Stokes-Mueller formalism in context of linear optics. Furthermore, application of Mueller matrix decomposition (MMD) method to derive sample properties is demonstrated in several bio-medical studies.
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