Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe of the oral cavity, is associated with the onset of various adverse pregnancy outcomes. P. gingivalis is linked with the development of preeclampsia, preterm labour, spontaneous abortion, gestational diabetes, foetal growth restriction, and misconception. The unique virulence factors, surface adhesions, enzymes of P. gingivalis can directly injure and alter the morphology, microbiome the foetal and maternal tissues. P. gingivalis can even exaggerate the production of cytokines, free radicals and acute-phase proteins in the uterine compartment that increases the risk of myometrial contraction and onset of preterm labour. Although evidence confirms the presence of P. gingivalis in the amniotic fluid and placenta of women with poor pregnancy outcomes, the intricate molecular mechanisms by which P. gingivalis initiates various antenatal and postnatal maternal and foetal complications are not well explained in the literature. Therefore, the present review aims to comprehensively summarise and highlight the recent and unique molecular pathogenic mechanisms of P. gingivalis associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology