Metformin (MET), a biguanide oral hypoglycaemic agent, recently has been shown to be effective in various conditions other than type-2 diabetes including cancer, stroke, weight reduction, and polycystic ovarian syndrome, to name a few. MET has also possessed antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties by activation of AMPK. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of MET on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic and neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and behavioural changes. The study consisted of six groups, where three selected doses of MET (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg) were employed in male Swiss albino mice, with one group of imipramine (IMI), saline, and LPS each. Systemic inflammation was induced by injecting LPS (1.5 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal route. A battery of behavioural tests including open field, forced swim, and tail suspension tests were employed to assess the impact of systemic inflammation on exploratory behaviour and learned helplessness. LPS induced significant immobility with profound symptoms of sickness behaviour. Furthermore, LPS led to significant increase in serum and brain proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6; and also increased lipid peroxidation with reduced glutathione levels. Pretreatment of the animals with 100 and 200 mg/kg of MET significantly reduced both systemic and central inflammatory markers along with protecting against LPS-induced oxidative stress. The higher dose, 300 mg/kg of MET was not effective against most of LPS-induced biochemical changes. Our preliminary results from this study suggest the antiinflammatory and neuroprotective effects of MET in LPS-induced model of sickness behaviour and neuroinflammation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmacology (medical)