Prevalence and correlates of bacterial vaginosis among young women of reproductive age in Mysore, India

P. Madhivanan, K. Krupp, V. Chandrasekaran, C. Karat, A. Arun, C. Cohen, A. Reingold, J. Klausner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge among women of childbearing age and is associated with STI/HIV and adverse birth outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of BV among young women of reproductive age in Mysore, India. Methods: Between October 2005 and December 2006, 898 sexually active women of 15-30 years of age were enrolled from two reproductive health clinics in Mysore. The women underwent an interview followed by physical examination, HSV-2 serologic testing, endocervical culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae , and vaginal swabs for diagnosis of BV, Trichomonas vaginalis infection and candidiasis. Statistical analyses included conventional descriptive statistics and multivariable analysis using logistic regression. Results: Of the 898 women, 391 (43.5%) were diagnosed with ≥1 endogenous reproductive tract infection and 157 (17.4%) with ≥1 sexually transmitted infection. Only 863 women had Gram-stained vaginal smears available, out of which 165 (19.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.3%-22.2%) were found to have BV and 133 (15.4, 95% CI: 12.9%-18.3%) were in the 'intermediate' stage. BV was related to concurrent infections with T. vaginalis (odds ratio [OR] = 4.07, 95% CI: 2.45-6.72) and HSV-2 seropositivity (OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.39-3.53). Conclusions: In this population, the prevalence of BV at 19% was relatively low. Coinfection with T. vaginalis , however, was common. BV was independently associated with concurrent T. vaginalis infection and partner's alcohol use. Muslim women had reduced odds of BV as compared to non-Muslim women. Further research is needed to understand the role of T. vaginalis infection in the pathogenesis of BV and the sociocultural context surrounding the condition in India.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)132-137
Number of pages6
JournalIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Volume26
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-04-2008

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Bacterial Vaginosis
India
Trichomonas vaginalis
Trichomonas Infections
Confidence Intervals
Human Herpesvirus 2
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Odds Ratio
Reproductive Tract Infections
Vaginal Discharge
Islam
Vaginal Smears
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Candidiasis
Reproductive Health
Coinfection
Physical Examination
Logistic Models
Alcohols
HIV

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology (medical)

Cite this

Madhivanan, P. ; Krupp, K. ; Chandrasekaran, V. ; Karat, C. ; Arun, A. ; Cohen, C. ; Reingold, A. ; Klausner, J. / Prevalence and correlates of bacterial vaginosis among young women of reproductive age in Mysore, India. In: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2008 ; Vol. 26, No. 2. pp. 132-137.
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abstract = "Purpose: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge among women of childbearing age and is associated with STI/HIV and adverse birth outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of BV among young women of reproductive age in Mysore, India. Methods: Between October 2005 and December 2006, 898 sexually active women of 15-30 years of age were enrolled from two reproductive health clinics in Mysore. The women underwent an interview followed by physical examination, HSV-2 serologic testing, endocervical culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae , and vaginal swabs for diagnosis of BV, Trichomonas vaginalis infection and candidiasis. Statistical analyses included conventional descriptive statistics and multivariable analysis using logistic regression. Results: Of the 898 women, 391 (43.5{\%}) were diagnosed with ≥1 endogenous reproductive tract infection and 157 (17.4{\%}) with ≥1 sexually transmitted infection. Only 863 women had Gram-stained vaginal smears available, out of which 165 (19.1, 95{\%} confidence interval [CI]: 16.3{\%}-22.2{\%}) were found to have BV and 133 (15.4, 95{\%} CI: 12.9{\%}-18.3{\%}) were in the 'intermediate' stage. BV was related to concurrent infections with T. vaginalis (odds ratio [OR] = 4.07, 95{\%} CI: 2.45-6.72) and HSV-2 seropositivity (OR = 2.22, 95{\%} CI: 1.39-3.53). Conclusions: In this population, the prevalence of BV at 19{\%} was relatively low. Coinfection with T. vaginalis , however, was common. BV was independently associated with concurrent T. vaginalis infection and partner's alcohol use. Muslim women had reduced odds of BV as compared to non-Muslim women. Further research is needed to understand the role of T. vaginalis infection in the pathogenesis of BV and the sociocultural context surrounding the condition in India.",
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Prevalence and correlates of bacterial vaginosis among young women of reproductive age in Mysore, India. / Madhivanan, P.; Krupp, K.; Chandrasekaran, V.; Karat, C.; Arun, A.; Cohen, C.; Reingold, A.; Klausner, J.

In: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, Vol. 26, No. 2, 01.04.2008, p. 132-137.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Prevalence and correlates of bacterial vaginosis among young women of reproductive age in Mysore, India

AU - Madhivanan, P.

AU - Krupp, K.

AU - Chandrasekaran, V.

AU - Karat, C.

AU - Arun, A.

AU - Cohen, C.

AU - Reingold, A.

AU - Klausner, J.

PY - 2008/4/1

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N2 - Purpose: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge among women of childbearing age and is associated with STI/HIV and adverse birth outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of BV among young women of reproductive age in Mysore, India. Methods: Between October 2005 and December 2006, 898 sexually active women of 15-30 years of age were enrolled from two reproductive health clinics in Mysore. The women underwent an interview followed by physical examination, HSV-2 serologic testing, endocervical culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae , and vaginal swabs for diagnosis of BV, Trichomonas vaginalis infection and candidiasis. Statistical analyses included conventional descriptive statistics and multivariable analysis using logistic regression. Results: Of the 898 women, 391 (43.5%) were diagnosed with ≥1 endogenous reproductive tract infection and 157 (17.4%) with ≥1 sexually transmitted infection. Only 863 women had Gram-stained vaginal smears available, out of which 165 (19.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.3%-22.2%) were found to have BV and 133 (15.4, 95% CI: 12.9%-18.3%) were in the 'intermediate' stage. BV was related to concurrent infections with T. vaginalis (odds ratio [OR] = 4.07, 95% CI: 2.45-6.72) and HSV-2 seropositivity (OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.39-3.53). Conclusions: In this population, the prevalence of BV at 19% was relatively low. Coinfection with T. vaginalis , however, was common. BV was independently associated with concurrent T. vaginalis infection and partner's alcohol use. Muslim women had reduced odds of BV as compared to non-Muslim women. Further research is needed to understand the role of T. vaginalis infection in the pathogenesis of BV and the sociocultural context surrounding the condition in India.

AB - Purpose: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge among women of childbearing age and is associated with STI/HIV and adverse birth outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of BV among young women of reproductive age in Mysore, India. Methods: Between October 2005 and December 2006, 898 sexually active women of 15-30 years of age were enrolled from two reproductive health clinics in Mysore. The women underwent an interview followed by physical examination, HSV-2 serologic testing, endocervical culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae , and vaginal swabs for diagnosis of BV, Trichomonas vaginalis infection and candidiasis. Statistical analyses included conventional descriptive statistics and multivariable analysis using logistic regression. Results: Of the 898 women, 391 (43.5%) were diagnosed with ≥1 endogenous reproductive tract infection and 157 (17.4%) with ≥1 sexually transmitted infection. Only 863 women had Gram-stained vaginal smears available, out of which 165 (19.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.3%-22.2%) were found to have BV and 133 (15.4, 95% CI: 12.9%-18.3%) were in the 'intermediate' stage. BV was related to concurrent infections with T. vaginalis (odds ratio [OR] = 4.07, 95% CI: 2.45-6.72) and HSV-2 seropositivity (OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.39-3.53). Conclusions: In this population, the prevalence of BV at 19% was relatively low. Coinfection with T. vaginalis , however, was common. BV was independently associated with concurrent T. vaginalis infection and partner's alcohol use. Muslim women had reduced odds of BV as compared to non-Muslim women. Further research is needed to understand the role of T. vaginalis infection in the pathogenesis of BV and the sociocultural context surrounding the condition in India.

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