Background India has a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) as well as diabetes mellitus (DM). DM is a chronic disease caused by deficiency of insulin production by the pancreas. The risk of TB amongst DM patients is three times higher than those without. The estimated national prevalence of DM is 7.3%. Despite the growing burden of DM, there are limited studies describing the prevalence of TB-DM in India. Objective Our study estimated the prevalence of DM amongst adult hospitalized TB patients at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal and determined factors associated with the likelihood of DM-TB co-prevalence. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal Academy of Higher Education. All hospitalized adult patients diagnosed with pulmonary TB (PTB) and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) between June 1st 2015 and June 30th 2016 were eligible for inclusion. Pediatric and pregnant TB patients were excluded from our study. Data were extracted from medical charts. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed in R. Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, type of TB, history of TB, and nutrition (body mass index (BMI)) status. Results A total of 728 patients met the eligibility criteria, 517 (71%) were male, 210 (29%) female, 406 (56%) had PTB and 322 (44%) had EPTB. Amongst those with a nutritional status, 36 (30%) patients were underweight (BMI <18.4 kg/m2), 73 (40%) had a normal BMI (18.5kg/ m2–24.9 kg/m2), 15 (8%) were overweight (BMI 25.0 kg/m2–29.9 kg/m2) and 9 (5%) were obese (BMI >30.0 kg/m2). A total of 720 (98.9%) of TB patients had at least one blood sugar test result. The overall prevalence of DM (n = 184) amongst TB patients was 25.3% (95% CI 22.2%, 28.6%). When stratified, it was 35.0% (30.4%, 39.9%) and 13.0% (9.7%, 17.3%) amongst PTB and EPTB patients respectively. TB patients aged 41–60 years had 3.51 times higher odds (aOR 3.51 (2.08, 6.07)) of having DM than patients 40 years or younger. Patients aged 60 years or older had 2.49 times higher odds (aOR 2.49 (1.28, 4.85)) of having DM than younger patients (<40 years). Females had lower odds (aOR 0.80 (0.46, 1.37)) of developing DM than male TB patients and patients with a history of TB had lower odds (aOR 0.73 (0.39, 1.32)) than newly diagnosed TB patients. Additionally, EPTB patients had significantly lower odds (aOR 0.26 (0.15, 0.43)) compared to PTB patients. Underweight patients also had significantly lower odds (aOR 0.25 (0.14, 0.42)) of having DM than normal weight patients. Conclusion Our study found a higher prevalence of TB-DM than the national average. TB-DM co-prevalence was significantly associated with age, type of TB and undernutrition. As India’s DM prevalence is expected to rise, TB-DM will become an increasingly important part of the TB epidemic requiring specialized study and care.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)