Prevalence of hypertension in boloor diabetes study (BDS-II) and its risk factors

Prabha Adhikari, Sudhakar Pemminati, Rahul Pathak, Mangalore Shashidhar Kotian, Sheetal Ullal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: Hypertension is a major public health problem in India and worldwide. Since hypertension is often asymptomatic, it commonly remains undetected, leading to serious complications if untreated. Hypertension is one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease. It doubles the risk of developing coronary artery disease, increases the risk of congestive heart failure by four folds and that of cerebrovascular disease and stroke by seven folds. Hypertension is directly responsible for 57% of all stroke deaths and 42% of coronary heart disease deaths in India. Aim: To identify prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in a semi urban population of Mangalore, who participated in Boloor Diabetes Study (BDS-II). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 551 subjects aged ≥ 20 years who were randomly selected. Hypertension was diagnosed and classified according to Joint National Committee 7 (JNC) criteria. Blood pressure was measured by a doctor using calibrated sphygmomanometer. Anthropometric measurements, lipid and glucose estimations were done for all subjects. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test and student’s t-test (unpaired). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done using hypertension as dependent variable and the various risk factors as independent variables. Results: Overall prevalence of hypertension in the community was 41% (227/551) (40.9% in men, 41.3% in women). Prehypertension was found in 40% (223/551) (45.4% in men, 38.1% in women), and only 18.3% (101/551) had normal blood pressure. Stage I hypertension was seen in 29.7% (164/551) (28.9% in men, 30.1% in women). Stage II hypertension was seen in 11.4% (63/551) (12% in men, 11% in women). Age, obesity, diabetes, serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides were strongly associated with hypertension. Only 46% (254/551) of the hypertensive subjects were aware that they were hypertensive. Conclusion: Prevalence of hypertension was high in this population. Nearly 54% were unaware of their hypertensive status. Prevalence increased with age, obesity, diabetic status and dyslipidemia. Nearly half of subjects were prehypertensives. This study highlights the need for regular screening coupled with educational programmes to detect, improve awareness and optimally treat hypertension in the community to reduce cardiovascular and renal complications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)IC01-IC04
JournalJournal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research
Volume9
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-11-2015

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Medical problems
Hypertension
Blood pressure
Public health
Regression analysis
Logistics
Statistical methods
Screening
Triglycerides
Cholesterol
Students
Lipids
Glucose
India
Obesity
Stroke
Prehypertension
Sphygmomanometers
Blood Pressure
Cerebrovascular Disorders

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Biochemistry

Cite this

Adhikari, Prabha ; Pemminati, Sudhakar ; Pathak, Rahul ; Kotian, Mangalore Shashidhar ; Ullal, Sheetal. / Prevalence of hypertension in boloor diabetes study (BDS-II) and its risk factors. In: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2015 ; Vol. 9, No. 11. pp. IC01-IC04.
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abstract = "Introduction: Hypertension is a major public health problem in India and worldwide. Since hypertension is often asymptomatic, it commonly remains undetected, leading to serious complications if untreated. Hypertension is one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease. It doubles the risk of developing coronary artery disease, increases the risk of congestive heart failure by four folds and that of cerebrovascular disease and stroke by seven folds. Hypertension is directly responsible for 57{\%} of all stroke deaths and 42{\%} of coronary heart disease deaths in India. Aim: To identify prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in a semi urban population of Mangalore, who participated in Boloor Diabetes Study (BDS-II). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 551 subjects aged ≥ 20 years who were randomly selected. Hypertension was diagnosed and classified according to Joint National Committee 7 (JNC) criteria. Blood pressure was measured by a doctor using calibrated sphygmomanometer. Anthropometric measurements, lipid and glucose estimations were done for all subjects. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test and student’s t-test (unpaired). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done using hypertension as dependent variable and the various risk factors as independent variables. Results: Overall prevalence of hypertension in the community was 41{\%} (227/551) (40.9{\%} in men, 41.3{\%} in women). Prehypertension was found in 40{\%} (223/551) (45.4{\%} in men, 38.1{\%} in women), and only 18.3{\%} (101/551) had normal blood pressure. Stage I hypertension was seen in 29.7{\%} (164/551) (28.9{\%} in men, 30.1{\%} in women). Stage II hypertension was seen in 11.4{\%} (63/551) (12{\%} in men, 11{\%} in women). Age, obesity, diabetes, serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides were strongly associated with hypertension. Only 46{\%} (254/551) of the hypertensive subjects were aware that they were hypertensive. Conclusion: Prevalence of hypertension was high in this population. Nearly 54{\%} were unaware of their hypertensive status. Prevalence increased with age, obesity, diabetic status and dyslipidemia. Nearly half of subjects were prehypertensives. This study highlights the need for regular screening coupled with educational programmes to detect, improve awareness and optimally treat hypertension in the community to reduce cardiovascular and renal complications.",
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Prevalence of hypertension in boloor diabetes study (BDS-II) and its risk factors. / Adhikari, Prabha; Pemminati, Sudhakar; Pathak, Rahul; Kotian, Mangalore Shashidhar; Ullal, Sheetal.

In: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, Vol. 9, No. 11, 01.11.2015, p. IC01-IC04.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Prevalence of hypertension in boloor diabetes study (BDS-II) and its risk factors

AU - Adhikari, Prabha

AU - Pemminati, Sudhakar

AU - Pathak, Rahul

AU - Kotian, Mangalore Shashidhar

AU - Ullal, Sheetal

PY - 2015/11/1

Y1 - 2015/11/1

N2 - Introduction: Hypertension is a major public health problem in India and worldwide. Since hypertension is often asymptomatic, it commonly remains undetected, leading to serious complications if untreated. Hypertension is one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease. It doubles the risk of developing coronary artery disease, increases the risk of congestive heart failure by four folds and that of cerebrovascular disease and stroke by seven folds. Hypertension is directly responsible for 57% of all stroke deaths and 42% of coronary heart disease deaths in India. Aim: To identify prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in a semi urban population of Mangalore, who participated in Boloor Diabetes Study (BDS-II). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 551 subjects aged ≥ 20 years who were randomly selected. Hypertension was diagnosed and classified according to Joint National Committee 7 (JNC) criteria. Blood pressure was measured by a doctor using calibrated sphygmomanometer. Anthropometric measurements, lipid and glucose estimations were done for all subjects. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test and student’s t-test (unpaired). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done using hypertension as dependent variable and the various risk factors as independent variables. Results: Overall prevalence of hypertension in the community was 41% (227/551) (40.9% in men, 41.3% in women). Prehypertension was found in 40% (223/551) (45.4% in men, 38.1% in women), and only 18.3% (101/551) had normal blood pressure. Stage I hypertension was seen in 29.7% (164/551) (28.9% in men, 30.1% in women). Stage II hypertension was seen in 11.4% (63/551) (12% in men, 11% in women). Age, obesity, diabetes, serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides were strongly associated with hypertension. Only 46% (254/551) of the hypertensive subjects were aware that they were hypertensive. Conclusion: Prevalence of hypertension was high in this population. Nearly 54% were unaware of their hypertensive status. Prevalence increased with age, obesity, diabetic status and dyslipidemia. Nearly half of subjects were prehypertensives. This study highlights the need for regular screening coupled with educational programmes to detect, improve awareness and optimally treat hypertension in the community to reduce cardiovascular and renal complications.

AB - Introduction: Hypertension is a major public health problem in India and worldwide. Since hypertension is often asymptomatic, it commonly remains undetected, leading to serious complications if untreated. Hypertension is one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease. It doubles the risk of developing coronary artery disease, increases the risk of congestive heart failure by four folds and that of cerebrovascular disease and stroke by seven folds. Hypertension is directly responsible for 57% of all stroke deaths and 42% of coronary heart disease deaths in India. Aim: To identify prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in a semi urban population of Mangalore, who participated in Boloor Diabetes Study (BDS-II). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 551 subjects aged ≥ 20 years who were randomly selected. Hypertension was diagnosed and classified according to Joint National Committee 7 (JNC) criteria. Blood pressure was measured by a doctor using calibrated sphygmomanometer. Anthropometric measurements, lipid and glucose estimations were done for all subjects. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test and student’s t-test (unpaired). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done using hypertension as dependent variable and the various risk factors as independent variables. Results: Overall prevalence of hypertension in the community was 41% (227/551) (40.9% in men, 41.3% in women). Prehypertension was found in 40% (223/551) (45.4% in men, 38.1% in women), and only 18.3% (101/551) had normal blood pressure. Stage I hypertension was seen in 29.7% (164/551) (28.9% in men, 30.1% in women). Stage II hypertension was seen in 11.4% (63/551) (12% in men, 11% in women). Age, obesity, diabetes, serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides were strongly associated with hypertension. Only 46% (254/551) of the hypertensive subjects were aware that they were hypertensive. Conclusion: Prevalence of hypertension was high in this population. Nearly 54% were unaware of their hypertensive status. Prevalence increased with age, obesity, diabetic status and dyslipidemia. Nearly half of subjects were prehypertensives. This study highlights the need for regular screening coupled with educational programmes to detect, improve awareness and optimally treat hypertension in the community to reduce cardiovascular and renal complications.

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JF - Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research

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