Aim: Most of the available data on the prevalence and impact of psychotic symptoms on the course of bipolar disorder (BD) is from Western countries. We aimed to study the prevalence of at least one psychotic episode in the lifetime in patients with BD and its association with the long-term course and outcome. Methodology: 773 patients recruited as part of the Bipolar Disorder Course and Outcome study from India (BiD-CoIN study) were divided into 2 groups, based on the presence or absence of at least one psychotic episode in the lifetime. Results: 326 (42.2%) patients had at least one psychotic episode in their lifetime. At least one psychotic episode in the lifetime was associated with overall more severe illness in terms of lower age of onset, a higher number of episodes in the first 5 years of illness; higher rates of BD-II, a higher rate of lifetime history of at least 1 suicide attempt, lifetime history of hospitalization, history of receiving Electroconvulsive Therapy, and a higher prescription rates of antipsychotics. However, presence of psychotics symptoms was associated with better cognitive functioning. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the presence of psychotic symptoms during episodes in patients with BD is associated with poorer course of BD.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Psychology
- Psychiatry and Mental health