Prevalence of refractive errors in a rural south Indian population

Prema Raju, S. Ve Ramesh, Hemamalini Arvind, Ronnie George, Mani Baskaran, Pradeep G. Paul, Govindasamy Kumaramanickavel, Catherine McCarty, Lingam Vijaya

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Abstract

PURPOSE. To report the prevalence of refractive errors in a rural south Indian population. METHODS. Four thousand eight hundred subjects (age, >39 years) from rural south India were enumerated for a population-based study. All participants underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation. Subjects who were phakic in the right eye with best corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better were included for analysis. Association of refractive errors with age, sex, cataract, and diabetes mellitus were analyzed. RESULTS. Of the 3924 responders, 2508 were eligible. The unadjusted prevalence of emmetropia (spherical equivalent [SE], -0.50 to +0.50 diopter sphere [DS]), myopia (SE < -0.50 DS), high myopia (SE < -5.00 DS), and hyperopia (SE > 0.50 DS) were 50.60%, 26.99%, 3.71%, and 18.70% and age and gender adjusted for the rural Tamil Nadu population were 46.77%, 30.97%, 4.32%, and 17.94%, respectively. The prevalence of emmetropia decreased significantly with age (P < 0.0001), and the prevalence of myopia and high myopia increased significantly with age (P < 0.001) and were significantly associated with nuclear sclerosis (P < 0.001). The prevalence of hyperopia increased until 60 years of age and then decreased. Hyperopia was more common among women than men (P < 0.001) and was negatively associated with nuclear sclerosis (P < 0.001) and positively with diabetes mellitus (P = 0.008). Of the participants with astigmatism (cylindrical error greater than 0.50 DC), 9.80% had with-the-rule (WTR) and 77.44% against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism. The prevalence of WTR and ATR astigmatism significantly decreased (P < 0.001) and increased (P = 0.006) with age, respectively. CONCLUSIONS. The pattern of refractive errors in this rural south Indian population is similar to those reported in other tropical regions of the world.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4268-4272
Number of pages5
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Volume45
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-12-2004

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Refractive Errors
Astigmatism
Myopia
Emmetropia
Population
Hyperopia
Sclerosis
Diabetes Mellitus
Cataract
Visual Acuity
India

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

Raju, Prema ; Ve Ramesh, S. ; Arvind, Hemamalini ; George, Ronnie ; Baskaran, Mani ; Paul, Pradeep G. ; Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy ; McCarty, Catherine ; Vijaya, Lingam. / Prevalence of refractive errors in a rural south Indian population. In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2004 ; Vol. 45, No. 12. pp. 4268-4272.
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abstract = "PURPOSE. To report the prevalence of refractive errors in a rural south Indian population. METHODS. Four thousand eight hundred subjects (age, >39 years) from rural south India were enumerated for a population-based study. All participants underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation. Subjects who were phakic in the right eye with best corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better were included for analysis. Association of refractive errors with age, sex, cataract, and diabetes mellitus were analyzed. RESULTS. Of the 3924 responders, 2508 were eligible. The unadjusted prevalence of emmetropia (spherical equivalent [SE], -0.50 to +0.50 diopter sphere [DS]), myopia (SE < -0.50 DS), high myopia (SE < -5.00 DS), and hyperopia (SE > 0.50 DS) were 50.60{\%}, 26.99{\%}, 3.71{\%}, and 18.70{\%} and age and gender adjusted for the rural Tamil Nadu population were 46.77{\%}, 30.97{\%}, 4.32{\%}, and 17.94{\%}, respectively. The prevalence of emmetropia decreased significantly with age (P < 0.0001), and the prevalence of myopia and high myopia increased significantly with age (P < 0.001) and were significantly associated with nuclear sclerosis (P < 0.001). The prevalence of hyperopia increased until 60 years of age and then decreased. Hyperopia was more common among women than men (P < 0.001) and was negatively associated with nuclear sclerosis (P < 0.001) and positively with diabetes mellitus (P = 0.008). Of the participants with astigmatism (cylindrical error greater than 0.50 DC), 9.80{\%} had with-the-rule (WTR) and 77.44{\%} against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism. The prevalence of WTR and ATR astigmatism significantly decreased (P < 0.001) and increased (P = 0.006) with age, respectively. CONCLUSIONS. The pattern of refractive errors in this rural south Indian population is similar to those reported in other tropical regions of the world.",
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Raju, P, Ve Ramesh, S, Arvind, H, George, R, Baskaran, M, Paul, PG, Kumaramanickavel, G, McCarty, C & Vijaya, L 2004, 'Prevalence of refractive errors in a rural south Indian population', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 4268-4272. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.04-0221

Prevalence of refractive errors in a rural south Indian population. / Raju, Prema; Ve Ramesh, S.; Arvind, Hemamalini; George, Ronnie; Baskaran, Mani; Paul, Pradeep G.; Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy; McCarty, Catherine; Vijaya, Lingam.

In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Vol. 45, No. 12, 01.12.2004, p. 4268-4272.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Prevalence of refractive errors in a rural south Indian population

AU - Raju, Prema

AU - Ve Ramesh, S.

AU - Arvind, Hemamalini

AU - George, Ronnie

AU - Baskaran, Mani

AU - Paul, Pradeep G.

AU - Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy

AU - McCarty, Catherine

AU - Vijaya, Lingam

PY - 2004/12/1

Y1 - 2004/12/1

N2 - PURPOSE. To report the prevalence of refractive errors in a rural south Indian population. METHODS. Four thousand eight hundred subjects (age, >39 years) from rural south India were enumerated for a population-based study. All participants underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation. Subjects who were phakic in the right eye with best corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better were included for analysis. Association of refractive errors with age, sex, cataract, and diabetes mellitus were analyzed. RESULTS. Of the 3924 responders, 2508 were eligible. The unadjusted prevalence of emmetropia (spherical equivalent [SE], -0.50 to +0.50 diopter sphere [DS]), myopia (SE < -0.50 DS), high myopia (SE < -5.00 DS), and hyperopia (SE > 0.50 DS) were 50.60%, 26.99%, 3.71%, and 18.70% and age and gender adjusted for the rural Tamil Nadu population were 46.77%, 30.97%, 4.32%, and 17.94%, respectively. The prevalence of emmetropia decreased significantly with age (P < 0.0001), and the prevalence of myopia and high myopia increased significantly with age (P < 0.001) and were significantly associated with nuclear sclerosis (P < 0.001). The prevalence of hyperopia increased until 60 years of age and then decreased. Hyperopia was more common among women than men (P < 0.001) and was negatively associated with nuclear sclerosis (P < 0.001) and positively with diabetes mellitus (P = 0.008). Of the participants with astigmatism (cylindrical error greater than 0.50 DC), 9.80% had with-the-rule (WTR) and 77.44% against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism. The prevalence of WTR and ATR astigmatism significantly decreased (P < 0.001) and increased (P = 0.006) with age, respectively. CONCLUSIONS. The pattern of refractive errors in this rural south Indian population is similar to those reported in other tropical regions of the world.

AB - PURPOSE. To report the prevalence of refractive errors in a rural south Indian population. METHODS. Four thousand eight hundred subjects (age, >39 years) from rural south India were enumerated for a population-based study. All participants underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation. Subjects who were phakic in the right eye with best corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better were included for analysis. Association of refractive errors with age, sex, cataract, and diabetes mellitus were analyzed. RESULTS. Of the 3924 responders, 2508 were eligible. The unadjusted prevalence of emmetropia (spherical equivalent [SE], -0.50 to +0.50 diopter sphere [DS]), myopia (SE < -0.50 DS), high myopia (SE < -5.00 DS), and hyperopia (SE > 0.50 DS) were 50.60%, 26.99%, 3.71%, and 18.70% and age and gender adjusted for the rural Tamil Nadu population were 46.77%, 30.97%, 4.32%, and 17.94%, respectively. The prevalence of emmetropia decreased significantly with age (P < 0.0001), and the prevalence of myopia and high myopia increased significantly with age (P < 0.001) and were significantly associated with nuclear sclerosis (P < 0.001). The prevalence of hyperopia increased until 60 years of age and then decreased. Hyperopia was more common among women than men (P < 0.001) and was negatively associated with nuclear sclerosis (P < 0.001) and positively with diabetes mellitus (P = 0.008). Of the participants with astigmatism (cylindrical error greater than 0.50 DC), 9.80% had with-the-rule (WTR) and 77.44% against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism. The prevalence of WTR and ATR astigmatism significantly decreased (P < 0.001) and increased (P = 0.006) with age, respectively. CONCLUSIONS. The pattern of refractive errors in this rural south Indian population is similar to those reported in other tropical regions of the world.

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