OBJECTIVE: Heart Failure (HF) is emerging as a crucial factor promoting muscle wasting and dysfunction contributing to sarcopenia. This modulates disease severity and reduces exercise capacity and leading to poorer outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to systematically investigate the overall prevalence of sarcopenia in HF.
METHODS: An electronic search was carried out in selected databases until 21st January, 2021. Data was pooled from the included articles and represented as pooled prevalence of sarcopenia. Subgroup analysis was undertaken between methods of diagnosis of sarcopenia, gender, ejection fraction, median time point and geographical region.
RESULTS: Amongst 32,643 citations imported from selected databases, 12 articles were included in final analysis. Analysis for prevalence of sarcopenia was 34%, with prevalence rates ranging from 10.1% to 68%. Subgroup analysis revealed strong associations between Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) (chi square = 3.24; p<0.001), with a good level of agreement (kappa = 0.76 [95% CI: 0.70 - 0.82]; p<0.001). Gender wise analysis revealed higher prevalence of sarcopenia among males (66%) than females (34%).
CONCLUSION: Sarcopenia is highly prevalent among those with HF (irrespective of type of HF) and is more commonly seen in males compared to females.