Price variability among the oral antibiotics available in a South Indian Tertiary Care Hospital

D. Patel, R. Thiyagu, M. Surulivelrajan, H. Patel, S. Pandey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: There exist a wide range of variation in the prices of drugs marketed in India and other countries of world. Very few studies have been conducted to reveal such price variations in the open market. Objective: This Pharmacoeconomic study is designed to obtain the picture of price variability among the different oral antibiotic drugs available in the hospital pharmacy and their economic impact on patients. Methods: Prices and the units of oral antibiotics sold included in the study were obtained from computer data base of hospital pharmacy department. The percentage price variation was calculated for all the brands of drugs. Brands were classified into costliest, cheapest and mid range based on the cost in comparison with all available brands for a drug. Impact of number of brands on percentage price variation was calculated. The cost incurred by the patient if costliest and the cheapest brands were prescribed for managing clinical condition was calculated. Results: Percentage price variability of 30 brands was 0 - 25% and for 24 brands it was 25.1-50%. For 15 brands percentage price variability was more than 100%. It has been observed that costliest brands were preferentially prescribed over the cheaper alternatives. As the number of brands increased for any drug the percentage price variation (range) also increased. Conclusion: It was observed that percentage price variation was higher among some drugs and this percentage price variation might result in bigger difference in cost of management of infections, if costlier brands were prescribed. Costlier brands were preferred more and there is a need to formulate policy at the Hospital level to address these issues.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1871-1875
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research
Volume3
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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Tertiary Healthcare
Tertiary Care Centers
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Costs
Costs and Cost Analysis
Pharmaceutical Economics
Economics
Hospital Departments
India
Databases

Cite this

@article{d8ceeeff24f84deb90364404e1d4a48b,
title = "Price variability among the oral antibiotics available in a South Indian Tertiary Care Hospital",
abstract = "Background: There exist a wide range of variation in the prices of drugs marketed in India and other countries of world. Very few studies have been conducted to reveal such price variations in the open market. Objective: This Pharmacoeconomic study is designed to obtain the picture of price variability among the different oral antibiotic drugs available in the hospital pharmacy and their economic impact on patients. Methods: Prices and the units of oral antibiotics sold included in the study were obtained from computer data base of hospital pharmacy department. The percentage price variation was calculated for all the brands of drugs. Brands were classified into costliest, cheapest and mid range based on the cost in comparison with all available brands for a drug. Impact of number of brands on percentage price variation was calculated. The cost incurred by the patient if costliest and the cheapest brands were prescribed for managing clinical condition was calculated. Results: Percentage price variability of 30 brands was 0 - 25{\%} and for 24 brands it was 25.1-50{\%}. For 15 brands percentage price variability was more than 100{\%}. It has been observed that costliest brands were preferentially prescribed over the cheaper alternatives. As the number of brands increased for any drug the percentage price variation (range) also increased. Conclusion: It was observed that percentage price variation was higher among some drugs and this percentage price variation might result in bigger difference in cost of management of infections, if costlier brands were prescribed. Costlier brands were preferred more and there is a need to formulate policy at the Hospital level to address these issues.",
author = "D. Patel and R. Thiyagu and M. Surulivelrajan and H. Patel and S. Pandey",
note = "Cited By :1 Export Date: 10 November 2017 Correspondence Address: Thiyagu, R.; Dept. of Pharmacy Practice, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, 576104, India; email: thiyagu.rajakannan@gmail.com Chemicals/CAS: amoxicillin, 26787-78-0, 34642-77-8, 61336-70-7; amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, 74469-00-4, 79198-29-1; ampicillin, 69-52-3, 69-53-4, 7177-48-2, 74083-13-9, 94586-58-0; azithromycin, 83905-01-5; cefdinir, 91832-40-5; cefixime, 79350-37-1; cefpodoxime, 82619-04-3; cefuroxime, 55268-75-2, 56238-63-2; cefuroxime axetil, 64544-07-6; chloramphenicol, 134-90-7, 2787-09-9, 56-75-7; ciprofloxacin, 85721-33-1; clarithromycin, 81103-11-9; erythromycin, 114-07-8, 70536-18-4; gatifloxacin, 112811-59-3, 180200-66-2; levofloxacin, 100986-85-4, 138199-71-0; linezolid, 165800-03-3; moxifloxacin, 151096-09-2; ofloxacin, 82419-36-1 References: Salman, M.T., Akram, M.F., Rahman, S., Khan, F.A., Haseen, M.A., Khan, S.W., Drug prescribing pattern in surgical wards of a teaching hospital in north India (2008) Indian Journal for the Practising Doctor, 5, pp. 5-6; Thomas M. Rational drug use and essential drug concept. In: G. Parthasarthi, Karen Nyfort-Hasen, eds. A textbook of clinical pharmacy practice. Ed 1, Orient Longman, 2004;72-73; Shankar, P.R., Subish, P., Mishra, P., Lalit, M., Ambiguous pricing of Nepalese medicines (2006) Journal of institute of medicine, 28, pp. 35-38; Guidelines for Bioavailability and Bioequivalence studies, Central drug standard control organization. http://www.cdsco.nic.in/html/ BE{\%}20Guidelines{\%}20Draft{\%}20Ver10{\%}20March{\%}2016,{\%}2005.pdf . Accessed May 20, 2009; Essential drugs and medicines: Drug finance, World health organization, , http://www.whoindia.org/EN/Section2/Section5/Section160-959.htm, Accessed on March 22, 2009; Haas, S., Phillips, K.A., Gerstenberger, E.P., Seger, A.C., Potential Savings from Substituting Generic Drugs for Brand-Name Drugs: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1997-2000 (2005) Ann Intern Med, 142, pp. 891-897; Rataboli, P.V., Dang, A., Antimicrobial price variation: Conundrum of medical profession (2007) J Postgrad Med, 53, pp. 72-74; Bakke, O.M., How many drugs do we need? (1986) World health forum, 7, pp. 252-255; Das, S.C., Mandal, M., Mandal, S.C., A critical study on availability and price variation between different brands: Impact on access to medicines (2007) Indian J. pharm.Sci, 69, pp. 160-163; India's per capita income doubles to Rs 38,084, , http://www.rediff.com/money/2009/feb/09indias-per-capita-income-doubles-to-rs-38084.html, Accessed May 24, 2009",
year = "2009",
language = "English",
volume = "3",
pages = "1871--1875",
journal = "Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research",
issn = "2249-782X",
publisher = "Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research",
number = "6",

}

Price variability among the oral antibiotics available in a South Indian Tertiary Care Hospital. / Patel, D.; Thiyagu, R.; Surulivelrajan, M.; Patel, H.; Pandey, S.

In: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, Vol. 3, No. 6, 2009, p. 1871-1875.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Price variability among the oral antibiotics available in a South Indian Tertiary Care Hospital

AU - Patel, D.

AU - Thiyagu, R.

AU - Surulivelrajan, M.

AU - Patel, H.

AU - Pandey, S.

N1 - Cited By :1 Export Date: 10 November 2017 Correspondence Address: Thiyagu, R.; Dept. of Pharmacy Practice, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, 576104, India; email: thiyagu.rajakannan@gmail.com Chemicals/CAS: amoxicillin, 26787-78-0, 34642-77-8, 61336-70-7; amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, 74469-00-4, 79198-29-1; ampicillin, 69-52-3, 69-53-4, 7177-48-2, 74083-13-9, 94586-58-0; azithromycin, 83905-01-5; cefdinir, 91832-40-5; cefixime, 79350-37-1; cefpodoxime, 82619-04-3; cefuroxime, 55268-75-2, 56238-63-2; cefuroxime axetil, 64544-07-6; chloramphenicol, 134-90-7, 2787-09-9, 56-75-7; ciprofloxacin, 85721-33-1; clarithromycin, 81103-11-9; erythromycin, 114-07-8, 70536-18-4; gatifloxacin, 112811-59-3, 180200-66-2; levofloxacin, 100986-85-4, 138199-71-0; linezolid, 165800-03-3; moxifloxacin, 151096-09-2; ofloxacin, 82419-36-1 References: Salman, M.T., Akram, M.F., Rahman, S., Khan, F.A., Haseen, M.A., Khan, S.W., Drug prescribing pattern in surgical wards of a teaching hospital in north India (2008) Indian Journal for the Practising Doctor, 5, pp. 5-6; Thomas M. Rational drug use and essential drug concept. In: G. Parthasarthi, Karen Nyfort-Hasen, eds. A textbook of clinical pharmacy practice. Ed 1, Orient Longman, 2004;72-73; Shankar, P.R., Subish, P., Mishra, P., Lalit, M., Ambiguous pricing of Nepalese medicines (2006) Journal of institute of medicine, 28, pp. 35-38; Guidelines for Bioavailability and Bioequivalence studies, Central drug standard control organization. http://www.cdsco.nic.in/html/ BE%20Guidelines%20Draft%20Ver10%20March%2016,%2005.pdf . Accessed May 20, 2009; Essential drugs and medicines: Drug finance, World health organization, , http://www.whoindia.org/EN/Section2/Section5/Section160-959.htm, Accessed on March 22, 2009; Haas, S., Phillips, K.A., Gerstenberger, E.P., Seger, A.C., Potential Savings from Substituting Generic Drugs for Brand-Name Drugs: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1997-2000 (2005) Ann Intern Med, 142, pp. 891-897; Rataboli, P.V., Dang, A., Antimicrobial price variation: Conundrum of medical profession (2007) J Postgrad Med, 53, pp. 72-74; Bakke, O.M., How many drugs do we need? (1986) World health forum, 7, pp. 252-255; Das, S.C., Mandal, M., Mandal, S.C., A critical study on availability and price variation between different brands: Impact on access to medicines (2007) Indian J. pharm.Sci, 69, pp. 160-163; India's per capita income doubles to Rs 38,084, , http://www.rediff.com/money/2009/feb/09indias-per-capita-income-doubles-to-rs-38084.html, Accessed May 24, 2009

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - Background: There exist a wide range of variation in the prices of drugs marketed in India and other countries of world. Very few studies have been conducted to reveal such price variations in the open market. Objective: This Pharmacoeconomic study is designed to obtain the picture of price variability among the different oral antibiotic drugs available in the hospital pharmacy and their economic impact on patients. Methods: Prices and the units of oral antibiotics sold included in the study were obtained from computer data base of hospital pharmacy department. The percentage price variation was calculated for all the brands of drugs. Brands were classified into costliest, cheapest and mid range based on the cost in comparison with all available brands for a drug. Impact of number of brands on percentage price variation was calculated. The cost incurred by the patient if costliest and the cheapest brands were prescribed for managing clinical condition was calculated. Results: Percentage price variability of 30 brands was 0 - 25% and for 24 brands it was 25.1-50%. For 15 brands percentage price variability was more than 100%. It has been observed that costliest brands were preferentially prescribed over the cheaper alternatives. As the number of brands increased for any drug the percentage price variation (range) also increased. Conclusion: It was observed that percentage price variation was higher among some drugs and this percentage price variation might result in bigger difference in cost of management of infections, if costlier brands were prescribed. Costlier brands were preferred more and there is a need to formulate policy at the Hospital level to address these issues.

AB - Background: There exist a wide range of variation in the prices of drugs marketed in India and other countries of world. Very few studies have been conducted to reveal such price variations in the open market. Objective: This Pharmacoeconomic study is designed to obtain the picture of price variability among the different oral antibiotic drugs available in the hospital pharmacy and their economic impact on patients. Methods: Prices and the units of oral antibiotics sold included in the study were obtained from computer data base of hospital pharmacy department. The percentage price variation was calculated for all the brands of drugs. Brands were classified into costliest, cheapest and mid range based on the cost in comparison with all available brands for a drug. Impact of number of brands on percentage price variation was calculated. The cost incurred by the patient if costliest and the cheapest brands were prescribed for managing clinical condition was calculated. Results: Percentage price variability of 30 brands was 0 - 25% and for 24 brands it was 25.1-50%. For 15 brands percentage price variability was more than 100%. It has been observed that costliest brands were preferentially prescribed over the cheaper alternatives. As the number of brands increased for any drug the percentage price variation (range) also increased. Conclusion: It was observed that percentage price variation was higher among some drugs and this percentage price variation might result in bigger difference in cost of management of infections, if costlier brands were prescribed. Costlier brands were preferred more and there is a need to formulate policy at the Hospital level to address these issues.

M3 - Article

VL - 3

SP - 1871

EP - 1875

JO - Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research

JF - Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research

SN - 2249-782X

IS - 6

ER -