Objectives: Glutathionyl haemoglobin (GS-Hb) belonging to the class of glutathionylated proteins has been investigated as a possible marker of oxidative stress in different chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine whether glutathionyl haemoglobin can serve as an oxidative stress marker in non-diabetic chronic renal failure patients on different renal replacement therapies (RRT) through its quantitation, and characterization of the specific binding site of glutathione in haemoglobin molecule by mass spectrometric analysis. Design and methods: The study group consisted of non-diabetic chronic renal failure patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT): hemodialysis (HD), continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and renal allograft transplant (Txp) patients. Haemoglobin samples of these subjects were analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for GS-Hb quantitation. Characterization of GS-Hb was done by tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (as thiobarbituric acid reacting substances) were measured spectrophotometrically, while glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured by HPLC. Results: GS-Hb levels were markedly elevated in the dialysis group and marginally in the transplant group as compared to the controls. GS-Hb levels correlated positively with lipid peroxidation and negatively with the erythrocyte glutathione levels in RRT groups indicating enhanced oxidative stress. De novo sequencing of the chymotryptic fragment of GS-Hb established that glutathione is attached to Cys-93 of the beta globin chain. Mass spectrometric quantitation of total glycated haemoglobin showed good agreement with HbA1c estimation by conventional HPLC method. Conclusions: Glutathionyl haemoglobin can serve as a clinical marker of oxidative stress in chronic debilitating therapies like RRT. Mass spectrometry provides a reliable analytical tool for quantitation and residue level characterization of different post-translational modifications of haemoglobin.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Biochemistry