Graphene quantum dots (GQDs), impressive materials with enormous future potential, are reviewed from their inception, including different precursors. Considering the increasing burden of industrial and ecological bio-waste, there is an urgency to develop techniques which will convert biowaste into active moieties of interest. Amongst the various materials explored, we selectively highlight the use of potential carbon containing bioprecursors (e.g. plant-based, amino acids, carbohydrates), and industrial waste and its conversion into GQDs with negligible use of chemicals. This review focuses on the effects of different processing parameters that affect the properties of GQDs, including the surface functionalization, paradigmatic characterization, toxicity and biocompatibility issues of bioprecursor derived GQDs. This review also examines current challenges and s the ongoing exploration of potential bioprecursors for ecofriendly GQD synthesis for future applications. This review sheds further light on the electronic and optical properties of GQDs along with the effects of doping on the same. This review may aid in future design approaches and applications of GQDs in the biomedical and materials design fields.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering